Bible and Christian Definitions / Dictionary

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(Christian Study Topics)

Below are simple definitions of important, difficult or unusual words in the Bible. These definitions will assist in your Bible readings, study, etc by helping you to understand the Biblical meanings and message in the scriptures. Many Bible references are also given.



Abase: To reduce or lower; to humble or cast down (Job 40:11; Isa 31:4; Eze 21:26).

Abated: Diminished in intensity or amount; lessened (Gen 8:3; Lev 27:18; Deu 34:7).

Abba: The Aramaic word for “father.” It was used by Jesus in his prayer in Gethsemane (Mark 14:36), as well as by Paul (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6).

Abhor: To shrink from with dread; lothe, detest (Exo 5:21; Lev 20:23, Lev 26:11).

Abjects: An outcast, a worthless, despicable person (Psa 35:15).

Abomination: Anything offensive to God, such as “unclean” food, idol worship or dishonesty (Prov. 6:16).

Abomination of Desolation: A term found in the Book of Daniel which means literally “an abomination that desolates” or “an abomination that appalls”.

The phrase “abomination of desolation” refers to Matthew 24:15 (KJV): “So when you see standing in the holy place ‘the abomination that causes desolation,’ spoken of through the prophet Daniel—let the reader understand.” This is referring to Daniel 9:27, “He will confirm a covenant with many for one ‘seven.’ In the middle of the ‘seven’ he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And on a wing [of the temple] he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him.” In 167 B.C. a Greek ruler by the name of Antiochus Epiphanies set up an altar to Zeus over the altar of burnt offerings in the Jewish temple in Jerusalem. He also sacrificed a pig on the altar in the Temple in Jerusalem. This event is known as the abomination of desolation.

In Matthew 24:15, Jesus was speaking some 200 years after the abomination of desolation described above had already occurred. So, Jesus must have been prophesying that some time in the future another abomination of desolation would occur in a Jewish temple in Jerusalem. Most Bible prophecy interpreters believe that Jesus was referring to the Antichrist who will do something very similar to what Antiochus Epiphanies did. This is confirmed by the fact that some of what Daniel prophesied in Daniel 9:27 did not occur in 167 B.C. with Antiochus Epiphanies. Antiochus did not confirm a covenant with Israel for seven years. It is the Antichrist who, in the end times, will establish a covenant with Israel for seven years and then break it by doing something similar to the abomination of desolation in the Jewish temple in Jerusalem.

Abroad: Outdoors; away from home; scattered about (1 Sa 9:26; Mar 1:28; Joh 11:52).

Adder: A poisonous snake (Ps. 91:13).

Adam:  The name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27-ch. 5). “God created man [Heb., Adam] in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” Hebrew for humanity or human.

Adamah (ad-aw-maw’): Hebrew for soil, earth, or ground.

Adamant: A sharp, hard stone; hardest substance (Eze 3:9; Zec 7:12).

Adjure: To charge or bind by an oath or threat (1 Ki 22:16; 2Ch 18:15; Mat 26:63)

Admiration: Wonder or astonishment (Jude 1:16; Rev 17:6).

Admonish: To instruct; warn; reprove mildly (Ecc 4:13).

Ado: Trouble; labor; fuss (Mar 5:39).

Adultery: Sexual relations between a married person and someone else. The seventh commandment forbids adultery (Ex. 20:14).

Adventure: Hazard, risk (Deu 28:56; Jdg 9:17; Act 19:31).

Advertise: Give notice, inform (Num 24:13; Rth 4:4).

Advisement: A consultation; counsel (1 Ch 12:19).

Affect: To act upon (Lam 3:51); embitter (Act 14:2); desire, seek (Gal 4:17, Gal 4:18).

Affinity: A relationship by marriage (1Ki 3:1; 2 Ch 18:1; Ezr 9:14).

Affording: Accomplishing, yielding, producing or providing (Psa 144:13).

Afoot: To go on foot; walk (Mat 6:33; Act 20:13).

Afore: Before; prior (2Ki 20:4; Psa 129:6; Rom 1:2).

Agape: Love (in Greek).

Agone: Past, ago (1 Sa 30:13).

Ague: Fever; chill (Lev 26:16).

Ahavah: Love (in Hebrew).

Albeit: Although; even though (Eze 13:7; Phm 1:19).

Alleluia: Praise the lord (Rev 19:1).

Allow: To praise or approve (Luk 11:48; Act 24:15; Rom 7:15).

Alms: Gifts of money, food or clothing to help the poor; relief to the poor (Mat 6:1, 2; Luk 11:41; Act 3:2).

Alter or Altar: A stone or pile of stones other material on which sacrifices were made. Elijah built an alter on Mount Carmel (1Ki. 18:30-32).

Alpha: The first letter of the Greek alphabet. It is used with omega, the last letter to express the external existence of God: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last” (Rev. 22:13).

Am: Exist; To be; The reply to Moses’ question for the name of the Deity, “I AM THAT I AM” (Ex. 3:14), indicates that the Lord makes Himself present as He wills.

Amen: A Hebrew word, originally meaning “firm, established,” which came to have the idea “so be it” or “so let it be.” It was (and still is) said at the end of a prayer or statement to show approval or agreement (Neh. 5:13).

Amazed: terrified, fearful (Mar 9:15, Mar 14:33)

Ambassage: Ambassadors, delegation (Luk 14:32).

Amerce: To punish by imposing a penalty or fine (Deu 22:19).

Amiable: Friendly, agreeable, or lovely (Psa 84:1).

Amiss: In error, incorrect, improper (2 Ch 6:37; Dan 3:29; Luk 23:41).

Amos: A prophet of Israel; the first to proclaim that God is the ruler of the whole universe; foretold the downfall of the northern kingdom. The Old Testament book of Amos is the third of the 12 Minor Prophets.

Anathema: Excommunication with a curse (1 Co 16:22).

Ananias: A Christian of Jerusalem who lost his life for lying and attempting to hold back part of the price of property he had sold (Acts 5:1-10). A Christian of Damascus who received Paul into Christian fellowship (Acts 9:10-17; 22:12-16). A Jewish high priest before whom Paul was tried in Jerusalem (Acts 23:2; 24:1).

Ancient: Old person yet still alive, elders (Ezr 3:12; Job 12:12; Isa 3:2).

Ancient of Days: The judge in Daniel’s vision; probably God Himself (Dan 7:9, 13, 22).

Andrew: One of the first of the 12 apostles of Jesus; brother of Simon Peter (Mt 4:18; 10:2-4; Mk 1:16-20, 29; 3:16-19; 13:3; Lk 6:14-16; Jn 1:35-42; 6:8; 12:20-22; 21:15-17; Acts 1:13). He was a former disciple of John the Baptist (Jn 1:35-40).

Angel or Angel of the Lord: A heavenly being sent as a messenger from God to a person or people (Gen. 16:7; Ex: 3:2; Num 22:23; 1 Kgs 19:7; Mt 28:2; Lk 1:11; Luke 1:30).

Angels are personal spiritual beings who have intelligence, emotions, and will. This is true of both the good and evil angels (demons). Angels possess intelligence (Matthew 8:29; 2 Corinthians 11:3; 1 Peter 1:12), show emotion (Luke 2:13; James 2:19; Revelation 12:17), and exercise will (Luke 8:28-31; 2 Timothy 2:26;Jude 6). Angels are spirit beings (Hebrews 1:14) without true physical bodies. Although they do not have physical bodies, they are still personalities.

Because they are created beings, their knowledge is limited. This means they do not know all things as God does (Matthew 24:36). They do seem to have greater knowledge than humans, however, which may be due to three things. First, angels were created as an order of creatures higher than humans. Therefore, they innately possess greater knowledge. Second, angels study the Bible and the world more thoroughly than humans do and gain knowledge from it (James 2:19; Revelation 12:12). Third, angels gain knowledge through long observation of human activities. Unlike humans, angels do not have to study the past; they have experienced it. Therefore, they know how others have acted and reacted in situations and can predict with a greater degree of accuracy how we may act in similar circumstances.

Though they have wills, angels, like all creatures, are subject to the will of God. Good angels are sent by God to help believers (Hebrews 1:14). Here are some activities the Bible ascribes to angels:

They praise God (Psalm 148:1-2; Isaiah 6:3). They worship God (Hebrews 1:6; Revelation 5:8-13). They rejoice in what God does (Job 38:6-7). They serve God (Psalm 103:20; Revelation 22:9). They appear before God (Job 1:6; 2:1). They are instruments of God’s judgments (Revelation 7:1; 8:2). They bring answers to prayer (Acts 12:5-10). They aid in winning people to Christ (Acts 8:26; 10:3). They observe Christian order, work, and suffering (1 Corinthians 4:9; 11:10; Ephesians 3:10; 1 Peter 1:12). They encourage in times of danger (Acts 27:23-24). They care for the righteous at the time of death (Luke 16:22).

Angle: Fishing rod with hook (Isa 19:8; Hab 1:15).

Anise: An herb of the parsley family (Mat 23:23).

Anoint: To pour or apply oil on a person’s head. Priests (Ex. 28:41), prophets (1 Ki. 19:16) and kings (1 Sam. 15:1; 16:13) were anointed in the sacred rites of consecration. The Greek Christ and the Hebrew Messiah both mean “Anointed One.” Anointing was often a sign of hospitality (Luke 7:46).

Anon: Immediately, at once (Mt. 1320; Mar 1:30).

Antichrist: Opponent or enemy of Christ.

Antioch: In Syria; the name “Christian” was first used here (Acts 11:26). In Pisidia; visited by Paul and Barnabas (Acts 13:14-52).

Apace: traveling at a great pace, swiftly (2Sa 18:25; Psa 68:12; Jer 46:5).

Apocalypse: A revelation; disclosure; usually a vision. Sometimes used as the title of the New Testament book of Revelation.

Apocrypha: A number of books included in the Roman Catholic versions of the Bible but not in the Hebrew Scriptures and not usually appearing in Protestant versions, though sometimes added between the Old Testament and New Testament. Nearly all Christians reject the apocrypha as scripture.

Apostle: Messenger; one sent on a mission (Mat 10:2; Mar 6:30; Luk 9:10). The name apostle was given to the 12 disciples whom Jesus chose to preach the gospel (Luke 6:13). After Jesus’ resurrection the original group was enlarged (Acts 1:21-26). Paul called himself an apostle (1 Cor. 9:1).

Apothecary: A store or shop; pharmacy, spice dealer (Exo 30:25; 2Ch 16:14; Neh 3:8).

Apparel: Clothing; attire (Jdg 17:10; Act 1:10).

Appertain: Belong or pertain to (Num 16:30; Jer 10:7; Neh 2:8).

Apple Eye: Pupil of the eye (Deu 32:10; Psa 17:8; Pro 7:2).

Arabia or Arabians: The North West part of the large peninsula in South West Asia; scene of many Biblical events. The peoples of the area were nomads.

Arameans: A Semitic people, traditionally descendants of Shem, the oldest son of Noah (Gen. 10:1, 22, 23). The were nomads, wandering along the West side of the Syrian desert.

Ararat: The mountain on which the ark came to rest after the Flood (Gen. 8:4); the land of Ararat is Armenia.

Archangel: An angel of the highest order (1 Thess. 4:16; Jude 9)

Archer: A man armed with a bow and arrows. The chief warriors of ancient times were archers (1 Sam. 31:3).

Aright: Correctly, properly (Psa 50:23, Pro 15:2; Jer 8:6).

Ark: A boat of the kind built by Noah to save his family and the animals from the flood (Gen. 6:14-16; Mt. 24:38).

Ark of the Covenant: The sacred chest made of wood and covered with gold. In it were kept tablets of stone inscribed with the Ten Commandments. The Lord hosts was enthroned on the cherubim over the ark (1 Sam 4:4).

Armageddon: The final battlefield between good and evil (Rev. 16:16). Its name comes from the Hebrew Har-Megiddo, meaning “mount Megiddo.” The mountain controlled important trade routes crossing the Plain of Esdraelon. Violent conflicts took place here (Judge. 5:19).

Armholes: The armpit; the hole in the garment in which the arm is put (Jer 38:12; Eze 13:18).

Armor: Leather or metal covering worn to protect a person’s body in battle. (1 Sam. 17:38; Eph. 6:14, 16).

Array or Arrayed: To clothe; to line up an army for battle (Gen 41:42; Jdg 20:20; 1Ch 19:9); Dressed, as in “Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these” (Mat. 6:29).

Art: Are; second person singular (Gen 3:9).

Artaxerxes: The name of two Persian kings; the first, mentioned in Ezra 7 and Nehemiah 2; 13; his grandson, the second, may have been the builder of the palace described in Esther 1:5, 6.

Artificer: One who makes something by art or skill (Gen 4:22; Isa 3:3; 1 Ch 29:5).

Artillery: Offensive weapon such as a bow or sling (1 Sa 20:40).

Ascension: Jesus’ last appearance to his disciples on the Mount of Olives when “he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight” (Acts 1:9). The word ascension does not appear in the Bible, but the ascension in an important Christian doctrine.

Asher: The eighth son of Jacob, the second by Zilpah (Gen. 30:12); one of the 12 tribes of Israel.

Ashkenazic, Mizrachi & Sephardic Jews (ahsh-ken-AH-zik) or Ashkenazim (ahsh-ken-ah-ZEEM) (miz-RAHKH-khee) or Mizrachim (miz-rahkh-KHEEM) (s’-FAHR-dic) or Sephardim (seh-fahr-DEEM): Jews from Northern Africa and the Middle East, and their descendants. Approximately half of the Jews of Israel are Mizrachi.

Ashkenazic Jews are the Jews of France, Germany, and Eastern Europe and their descendants. The adjective “Ashkenazic” and corresponding nouns, Ashkenazi (singular) and Ashkenazim (plural) are derived from the Hebrew word “Ashkenaz,” which is used to refer to Germany. Most American Jews today are Ashkenazim, descended from Jews who emigrated from Germany and Eastern Europe from the mid 1800s to the early 1900s. The pages in this site are written from the Ashkenazic Jewish perspective.

Sephardic Jews are the Jews of Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East and their descendants. The adjective “Sephardic” and corresponding nouns Sephardi (singular) and Sephardim (plural) are derived from the Hebrew word “Sepharad,” which refers to Spain.

Sephardic Jews are often subdivided into Sephardim, from Spain and Portugal, and Mizrachim, from the Northern Africa and the Middle East. The word “Mizrachi” comes from the Hebrew word for Eastern. There is much overlap between the Sephardim and Mizrachim. Until the 1400s, the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa and the Middle East were all controlled by Muslims, who generally allowed Jews to move freely throughout the region. It was under this relatively benevolent rule that Sephardic Judaism developed. When the Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492, many of them were absorbed into existing Mizrachi communities in Northern Africa and the Middle East.

Most of the early Jewish settlers of North America were Sephardic. The first Jewish congregation in North America, Shearith Israel, founded in what is now New York in 1684, was Sephardic and is still active. Philadelphia’s first Jewish congregation, Congregation Mikveh Israel, founded in 1740, was also a Sephardic one, and is also still active.

In Israel, a little more than half of all Jews are Mizrachim, descended from Jews who have been in the land since ancient times or who were forced out of Arab countries after Israel was founded. Most of the rest are Ashkenazic, descended from Jews who came to the Holy Land (then controlled by the Ottoman Turks) instead of the United States in the late 1800s, or from Holocaust survivors, or from other immigrants who came at various times. About 1% of the Israeli population are the black Ethiopian Jews who fled during the brutal Ethiopian famine in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Click here and click here for more information.

Asia: A Roman province in the western part of what we call Asia Minor (Acts 16:6; 20:18; 1 Pet. 1:1; Rev. 1:4).

Asp: A snake, serpent (Deu. 32:33).

Assay: To try, undertake, prove, or attempt (Deu 4:34; 1 Sa 17:39; Act 9:26).

Ass: The donkey – a patient, slow, sure-footed beast of burden with long ears. An *** is usually represented in pictures of the Nativity in reference to Isaiah’s prophecy (Is. 1:3).

Assent: To agree, concur (2 Ch 18:12; Act 24:9).

Asswage: To lessen, relieve, or ease (Job 16:5, Job 16:6; Gen 8:1).

Assyria: One of the two civilizations that flourished in Mesopotamia from the third millenium B.C. till about 600 B.C.

Astonied: Astonished, surprised or startled (Ezr 9:3; Dan 5:9).

Asunder: Apart; into parts; separately (Lev 1:17).

Atonement: The bringing together again or the restoring of right relations between God and man after man’s sin has offended God. In the Old Testament, atonement was made to God by means of sacrifices, offerings, prayers and repentance (Ex. 30:10). On the Day of Atonement the high priest performed a ceremonial rite to cleanse the people from their sins. The New Testament uses the word reconciliation instead of atonement (Heb. 2:17), but the atonement is one of the chief doctrines of the church.

Attent: To be attentive, observant (2Ch 6:40, 2 Ch 7:15).

Augment: To enlarge, increase, or supplement (Num 32:14).

Austere: To be severe, strict, harsh (Luk 19:21, Luk 19:22).

Avenger: A person who punishes a murderer or other wrongdoer. In early times the avenger was usually the nearest relative of the wronged person. Paul said, “Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto wrath: for it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay, saith the Lord” (Rom. 12:19).

Averse: To be opposed, unwilling, disinclined, turned back (Mic 2:8).

Avouched: guaranteed, admitted, affirmed, or vouched for (Deu 26:17, Deu 26:18).

Away with: Tolerate, bear, and endure; to take away (Isa 1:13; Luk 23:18; Joh 19:15).

Axletrees: Wooden axels, spindle (1 Ki 7:32, 1 Ki 7:33).


Baal: The chief pagan god worshiped by the Canaanites (1 Ki. 18:18-19).Babel: Hebrew form of the name “Babylon”, capital of Babylonia; site of the Tower of Babel (Gen. 11:1-9).Babes: Infants, small children (Ps. 8:2; Mt. 21:16).Babylon: A rich and magnificent city, the capital of Babylonia in the Euphrates Valley (Dan. 4:30).Babylonia: One of the two civilizations that flourished in Mesopotamia from the third millennium B.C. until about 600 B.C.

Backbiters: To slander; to attack one’s character (Rom. 1:30; Psa 15:3; Pro 25:23).

Bakemeats: baked food (Gen 40:17).

Balances: Scales for weighing money and produce. The law demanded just balances (Lev. 19:36).

Balm: A fragrant oil or resin obtained from a bush growing in Gilead. Balm was used to soothe pain and to heal wounds (Gen. 37:25).

Bank: Mound for besieging a city (2 Sa 20:15; 2 Ki 19:32; Isa 37:33).

Banquet or Banqueting: a feast; drinking party (Son 2:4; 1 Pe 4:3)

Baptism: The rite practiced by John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus. Baptism, a symbol of inner cleansing and purification, became the ceremony of admission into the church (Mat. 28:19).

The baptism of the Holy Spirit may be defined as that work whereby the Spirit of God places the believer into union with Christ and into union with other believers in the body of Christ at the moment of salvation. The baptism of the Holy Spirit was predicted by John the Baptist (Mark 1:8) and by Jesus before He ascended to heaven: “For John baptized with water, but in a few days you will be baptized with the Holy Spirit” (Acts 1:5).

According to the bulk of Scripture, water baptism is an important first step in following Jesus as Lord. Jesus was baptized (Matthew 3:16; Luke 3:21) and told those who professed His name to follow His example as evidence that their hearts had changed (Acts 8:16; 19:5). Believer’s baptism is the act by which a believer in Jesus Christ chooses to be baptized in order to give testimony of his faith. Believer’s baptism is also called “credobaptism,” a term that comes from the Latin word for “creed,” indicating that baptism is a symbol of a person’s adopting a certain doctrine or creed.

Believer’s baptism is clearly taught in Acts 2. In this chapter, Peter is preaching the gospel message on the Day of Pentecost in Jerusalem. In the power of the Holy Spirit, Peter boldly proclaims Jesus’ death and resurrection and commands the crowd to repent and believe in Christ (Acts 2:36, 38). The response to Peter’s gospel presentation is recorded in verse 41: “Those who accepted his message were baptized.” Note the order of events—they accepted the message (the gospel of Christ), and then they were baptized. Only those who believed were baptized. We see the same order in Acts 16, when the Philippian jailer and his family are saved. They believe, and then they are baptized (Acts 16:29–34). The practice of the apostles was to baptize believers, not unbelievers.

In the case of baptism and salvation, the Bible is clear that salvation is by grace through faith in Jesus Christ, not by works of any kind, including baptism (Ephesians 2:8-9). So, any interpretation which comes to the conclusion that baptism, or any other act, is necessary for salvation, is a faulty interpretation.

Believer’s baptism is distinguished from infant baptism in that an infant, who has no understanding of the gospel, cannot be a “believer” in Christ. Believer’s baptism involves a person hearing the gospel, accepting Christ as Savior, and choosing to be baptized. It is his or her choice. In infant baptism, the choice is made by someone else, not the child being baptized. Those who baptize infants often teach that water baptism is the means by which the Holy Spirit is imparted to an individual. They base this idea primarily upon Peter’s words in Acts 2:38: “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.” Those who hold this doctrine believe that the act of baptizing an infant sets the child apart and secures salvation. Nowhere in Scripture is the practice of infant baptism even implied. Some point to the few references of the apostles baptizing “households” (Acts 11:14; 16:15, 33), with the assumption that the households included infants, but this is going beyond what the text says.

In the New Testament, baptism by water was the natural result of saving faith and commitment to Jesus as Savior and Lord (Acts 2:42; 8:35–37). Since infants and small children cannot make an informed decision to profess Jesus as Lord, their baptism has no spiritual significance. If infant baptism made a baby right with God, then only children whose parents desired it would be “saved.” Those who did not have believing parents would be condemned as infants, an idea with no biblical foundation. Scripture is clear that God judges the heart of every person and judges or rewards each based on the decisions made by that individual, not by his or her parents (Romans 2:5–6, Jeremiah 17:10; Matthew 16:27; 2 Corinthians 5:10).

Barabbas: A robber held in prison by the Roman authorities at the time of Jesus’ trial; Pilate freed him and condemned Jesus to death (Mt. 27:20-26; Mk. 15:7-15; Lk 23:18-25; Jn 18:39, 40).

Barbarian: Foreigner, alien (1 Co 14:11).

Barked: To have the bark scrapped off (Joe 1:7).

Barley: An important food grain in Bible times. Five loaves of barley bread were multiplied by Jesus to feed approximately 5,000 people (John 6:9, 13).

Barnabas: The surname given by the apostles to Joses or Joseph, a Levite of Cyprus, who was sent by them to Antioch to confirm the church there. Accompanied Paul on his first missionary journey (Acts 4:36, 37; 9:27; 11:22, 25, 30; 12:25; 13:1-13, 43-52; 14:12, 14, 20; 15:2; 1 Cor. 9:6; Gal 2:1, 9, 13; Col. 4:10).

Bartholomew: One of the 12 apostles of Jesus (Mt. 10:3; Mk. 3:18; Lk 6:14; Acts 1:13).

Baruch: Jeremiah’s scribe, or secretary (Jer. 36:4).

Base: Lowly, humble (1 Co 1:28; 2 Co 10:1).

Bastard: An illegitimate child (Deu 23:2; Zec 9:6; Heb 12:8).

Bath: About 8 gallons of liquid (Isa 5:10).

Battlement: A formation on top of a wall for protection (Deu 22:8; Jer 5:10).

Beast: Animal; Used at times to describe living things other than man; In the Book of Revelation, the word is used of both heavenly beasts and beasts from the bottomless pit.

Beatitudes: The word beatitude means “happy” or “blessed,” and the nine verses in Jesus’ Sermon on the Mount beginning with the word blessed are referred to as the “Beatitudes” (Mat. 5:3-11). The Sermon on the Mount opens with the Beatitudes, which describe the qualities of character Jesus expects of his followers.

Beckoned: To make a signal or to summon (Luk 1:22; Joh 13:24; Act 19:33).

Bedstead: A place for a bed; bed frame (Deu 3:11).

Beeves: Yhe plural of beef, oxen (Lev 22:19; Num 31:28).

Begat: Yo get, bear or bring forth (Gen 4:18; Gen 7:20; Pro 7:21).

Beggarly: A beggar, indigent, poverty stricken (Gal 4:9).

Beginning: From the start; the outset (Gen. 1:1; Jn. 1:1).

Begotten: Procreated; brought forth (Gen 5:4).

Behemoth: A beast or brute; large animal (Job 40:15).

Behoved: Requirement; necessary (Luk 24:46; Heb 2:17).

Belied: To deceive by lying, assert falsely, prove to be false (Jer 5:12).

Bemoan: Bewail, lament, or express pity for (Jer 15:5; Nah 3:7; Job 42:11).

Benediction: An asking for God’s blessing, as by a minister or priest at the conclusion of a church service; a blessing.

Benjamin: The youngest son of Jacob. His mother, Rachel, died at his birth (Gen. 35:18). Especially beloved by his father and by Joseph, his only full brother (Gen. 42:4, 36; 43:14-16, 29, 34; 44:12; 45: 12, 14, 22).Ancestor of the tribe of Benjamin, the smallest of the 12 tribes of Israel.

Beseech: To seek; call upon (Exo 3:18; Mat 8:5; Gen 42:21); To ask earnestly or to plead for a blessing or favor (Mark 1:40).

Besom: Broom; sweeping tool (Isa 14:23).

Bestead: Distressed; perplexed (Isa 8:21).

Bestir: To heap up, to stir up (2 Sa 5:24).

Bethany: A small village on the East slope of the Mount of Olives, about one and one-half miles East of Jerusalem. From here Jesus made His triumphal entry into Jerusalem (Mk 11:1-11); the home of Simon the leper (Mt. 26:6; Mk 14:3); home of Lazarus, Mary, and Martha (Jn. 11:1-44); site of Jesus’ final parting from His disciples (Lk. 24:50, 51).

Bethel: City 14 miles North of Jerusalem. Near here Abraham built an altar (Gen. 12:8; 13:3, 4); here Jacob’s name was changed to Israel (Gen. 35:10-15); the ark of the covenant rested here (Judg. 20:18-28); Jeroboam made it a place of idolatry (1 Kgs. 12:29-13:32), which Josiah destroyed (2 Kgs. 23:4-15).

Bethlehem: A very old town about six miles South, South-West of Jerusalem; the birthplace of Jesus (Mt. 2:1-16; Lk 2:4-15; Jn. 7:42); Also associated with David (1 Sam. 16:1-13; 17:12, 15; 20:6, 28). Ruth (Ruth 1:1, 2, 19, 22; 2:4; 4:11), and other person of the Old Testament.

Bethink: To remember, remind (1 Ki 8:47; 2 Ch 6:37).

Betimes: Early, in due time (Gen 26:31; 2 Ch 36:15; Job 8:5).

Betrothed: Contracted for future marriage; engaged (Exo 21:8; Deu 20:7).

Bettered: Improve, amended, render more excellent (Mar 5:26).

Betwixt: In between (Gen 17:11; Phi 1:23).

Bewail: To express sorrow, lament, mourn (Lev 10:6; Deu 21:13; Jdg 11:37).

Bewitched: To fascinate; charm (Act 8:9; Gal 3:1).

Bewray: To reveal, expose, disclose, or betray (Isa 16:3; Pro 27:16, Mat 26:73).

Bier: A frame on which a corpse or casket is laid (2 Sa 3:31; Luk 7:14).

Billow: A swelling of water (Psa 42:7).

Birthright: The special rights and privileges belonging to the eldest son of a Hebrew family. Esau sold his birthright to his younger brother Jacob (Gen. 25:33).

Bishop: Overseer (Phi 1:1; 1 Pe 2:25). A high-ranking minister, head of a district or diocese (1 Tim. 3:2).

Bishoprick: The office of Bishop or overseer (Act 1:20).

Bittern: A bird similar to a heron (Isa 14:23, Isa 34:11; Zep 2:14).

Blains: An swelling or sore; a boil (Exo 9:9, Exo 9:10).

Blasphemy: Speaking against God. Jewish law stated that a person who blasphemed was to be stone to death. Jesus was falsely accused of blasphemy (Mat. 26:65), and Stephen was unjustly punished for it (Acts 6:11; 7:54-58).

Blaze: To make known, proclaim, sound an alarm or publish (Mar 1:45).

Bless: To give divine favor (Gen. 1:22), to thank God for his goodness (Ps. 103:1) or to pray for God’s favor on a person (Num. 6:24).

Blueness: The mark of a bruise (Pro 20:30).

Boaz: A wealthy Bethlehemite who married Ruth (Ruth 2:1-4:22).

Boisterous: Strong; mighty; powerful (Mat 14:30).

Bolled: To be swollen or inflated; full seed pods (Exo 9:31).

Bolster: A pillow or cushion used as a means of support ([color=#400080]1 Sa 19:13[/color])

Bondage: Slavery. The people of Israel were in bondage in Egypt (Ex: 2:23).

Bondslave: A peasant or someone in slavery (Gen 21:10; Lev 19:20; Deu 28:68).

Booths, Feast of: See Feast of Tabernacles.

Bosses: Ornamental knobs (Job 15:26).

Botch: Ulcer, tumor, boil (Deu 28:27, Deu 28:35).

Bowels: The interior of anything, affections (Gen 15:4; Phi 1:8; 1 Jo 3:17).

Bravery: Splendor; magnificence (Isa 3:18).

Bray: To crush; to cry out (Pro 27:22; Job 6:5).

Breastpiece: A cloth trimmed with 12 gems and worn by the high priest over his breast when he entered the most holy place (Ex: 28:15-30). Each gem represented one of the 12 tribes of Israel, and they included: sardius, topaz, carbuncle, emerald, sapphire, diamond, jacinth, agate, amethyst, beryl, onyx and jasper, all set in gold filigree.

Breastplate: A metal or leather plate worn by a soldier to protect the upper part of his body (Isa. 59:17).

Breeches: Garments for the loins and thighs (Exo 28:42, Exo 39:28; Lev 6:10).

Brigandine: Body armor (Jer 46:4, Jer 51:3).

Brimstone: Burning stone of sulphur (Gen 19:24; Rev 21:8).

Broided: Braided (1 Ti 2:9).

Broidered: To embroider or ornament with needlework (Exo 28:4; Eze 16:10).

Brother: A male relative of the same parents (Gen. 4:8, 9; Deut. 1:16; 13:6; Prov. 17:17; 18:24; Mt. 12:50).

Bruit: Rumor, report (Jer 10:22; Nah 3:19).

Brutish: Uncivilized, stupid, slow, or without understanding (Psa 49:10; Eze 21:31).

Buckler: A round shield with a grip (2 Sa 22:31; 2 Ch 23:9).

Buffet: Strike, beat, or contend against (Mar 14:65; 2 Co 12:7; 1 Co 4:11).

Bulrush or Bulrushes: a tall aquatic plant or a cattail (Isa 18:2, Isa 58:5); Tall papyrus reeds that grew along the banks of the Nile River in Egypt. Baskets were fashioned from the stems woven together (Exo 2:3). Paper was made from the inner fibers of papyrus.

Bunches: A hump, bump, swelling or tumor (2 Sa 16:1; 1 Ch 12:40; Isa 30:6).

Burnt Offering: A gift to God that was burnt upon an alter (Lev. 6:8-13).

Bushel: A dry measure, the container holding such a measure (Mt. 5:15; Mk. 4:21; Lk. 11:33).

Butler: Cup-bearer (Gen 14:21).

By and By: Immediately or at once; Offended; But the end is not (Mat 13:21; Mar 6:25; Luk 17:7; 21:9).


Cab: nearly 4 pints (2 Ki 6:25)Call: An invitation or summons to a person to take part in God’s divine plan. Abraham (Gen. 12:1-9), Moses (Ex. 3:1-12), Samuel (1 Sam. 3) and Isaiah (Is. 6) were among many who heard and obeyed God’s call. Jesus called Simon Peter, Andrew, James and John (Mark 1:16-20), and the other apostles, including Paul (Acts 9:1-22).Cain: Son of Adam; Murdered his brother Abel (Gen. 4:2).Call: To summon; To summon to discipleship or to accept God’s divine invitation for salvation (Mt. 22:3; Mk 1:20;Rm. 8:28).

Calve: an animal giving birth to a calf (Job 39:1; Psa 29:9; Jer 14:5)

Camel: A large, long-necked animal, usually with two humps on its back, used to carry goods and people across desert regions and to help on farms. One-humped Arabian camels are often called drome-daries. The Queen of Sheba arrived with a camel train (1 Ki. 10:2), and Jesus made two remarks about camels (Ma. 23:24; Mark 10:25).

Canaan or Canaanites: The land between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea and that part of Syria along the coast.

Candlestick: Lampstand, particularly the seven-branched lampstand of the Tabernacle and the Temple, and the symbolic one of Revelation (Ex. 25:31; Rev. 1:12).

Canker: A sore, ulcer, or malignant growth (2 Ti 2:17; James 5:3)

Cankered: Eaten away (James 5:3).

Canon: The laws of a church; The collection of writings and/or books of a religion that are considered to be God’s Word and that set forth the standards of faith. The Old Testament was, and is, the official collection of Holy Scriptures of the Jews. These books were recognized as canonical and holy by all orthodox Christians from the beginning. The Roman Catholic church accepts other books which Protestant denominations call Apocrypha. By the end of the fourth century, the collection of early Christian writings now known as the New Testament had been recognized as authoritative.

Capernaum: A city on the North West shore of the Sea of Galilea. Jesus lived there (Mk. 2:1). Home of Peter and Andrew (Mt. 8:5, 14); Here Jesus healed a man with an unclean spirit (Mk. 1:21-28) and the paralytic (Mk. 2:1-12) and held discussions and true greatness (Mk. 9:33-37) and paying the half-shekel tax (Mt. 17:24-27).

Carmel, Mount: A high headland on the coast of Palestine; Scene of contest between prophets of Baal and Elijah (1 Kgs. 18:19-40).

Cattle: Animals held as property or raised for use. in the Bible the word cattle includes sheep, goats, oxen, bulls, cows, calves, a***s (donkeys), camels and horses. Abraham’s wealth was measured by the number of is cattle (Gen. 13:2).

Captivity: The condition of being in bondage. The ten northern tribes of Israel were carried into captivity in Assyria in 7:22 B.C. (2 Ki. 18:11). Judah’s Babylonian captivity or exile began in 598 B. C. when its people were deported to Babylonia (2 Ki. 24:10-17).

Carbuncle: Red precious stone (Exo 28:17; Eze 28:13; Isa 54:12)

Carefulness: anxiety (1 Co 7:32)

Careless: free from care, secure (Jdg 18:7)

Carnal: sensual, fleshly, worldly (Rom 7:14; 1Co 3:1; 2 Co 10:4)

Carriage: that which is carried (Jdg 18:21; 1 Sa 17:22; Isa 10:28)

Castaway: Rejected (1 Co 9:27)

Caul: Fatty tissue that surrounds an organ in the body (Exo 29:13; Lev 9:19)

Causeway: Paved highway (1 Ch 26:16, 1 Ch 26:18)

Cedar: An evergreen tree. The mighty cedar of Lebanon, with its coarse, reddish-brown bark and bright green needles, is often mentioned in the Old Testament (1 Ki. 5:6).

Ceiled: Covered, panelled (2 Ch 3:5; Jer 22:14; Eze 41:16)

Centurion: A Roman officer commanding a company of 100 men. Jesus healed a centurion’s servant (Mat. 8:5-13), and a centurion saved Paul’s life in the shipwreck (Acts 27:43).

Chaff: Useless husks of grain separated from the good kernel by threshing and blown away by the wind (Ps. 1:4).

Chambering: Sexual indulgence or lewdness (Rom 13:13).

Chamberlain: Manager of a household or town (Act 12:20; Rom 16:23)

Chamois: A small antelope (Deu 14:5).

Champaign: A plain; flat, open country (Deu 11:30).

Chanukah: A Jewish holiday; Chanukkah, the Jewish festival of rededication, also known as the festival of lights, is an eight day festival beginning on the 25th day of the Jewish month of Kislev.

Chanukkah is probably one of the best known Jewish holidays, not because of any great religious significance, but because of its proximity to Christmas. Many non-Jews (and even many assimilated Jews!) think of this holiday as the Jewish Christmas, adopting many of the Christmas customs, such as elaborate gift-giving and decoration. It is bitterly ironic that this holiday, which has its roots in a revolution against assimilation and the suppression of Jewish religion, has become the most assimilated, secular holiday on our calendar.

The story of Chanukkah begins in the reign of Alexander the Great. Alexander conquered Syria, Egypt and Palestine, but allowed the lands under his control to continue observing their own religions and retain a certain degree of autonomy. Under this relatively benevolent rule, many Jews assimilated much of Hellenistic culture, adopting the language, the customs and the dress of the Greeks, in much the same way that Jews in America today blend into the secular American society.

More than a century later, a successor of Alexander, Antiochus IV was in control of the region. He began to oppress the Jews severely, placing a Hellenistic priest in the Temple, massacring Jews, prohibiting the practice of the Jewish religion, and desecrating the Temple by requiring the sacrifice of pigs (a non-kosher animal) on the altar. Two groups opposed Antiochus: a basically nationalistic group led by Mattathias the Hasmonean and his son Judah Maccabee, and a religious traditionalist group known as the Chasidim, the forerunners of the Pharisees (no direct connection to the modern movement known as Chasidism). They joined forces in a revolt against both the assimilation of the Hellenistic Jews and oppression by the Seleucid Greek government. The revolution succeeded and the Temple was rededicated.

According to tradition as recorded in the Talmud, at the time of the rededication, there was very little oil left that had not been defiled by the Greeks. Oil was needed for the menorah (candelabrum) in the Temple, which was supposed to burn throughout the night every night. There was only enough oil to burn for one day, yet miraculously, it burned for eight days, the time needed to prepare a fresh supply of oil for the menorah. An eight day festival was declared to commemorate this miracle. Note that the holiday commemorates the miracle of the oil, not the military victory: Jews do not glorify war.

Chapiter: Head of, or capital of a column (1 Ki 7:16).

Chapmen: A merchant, peddler, or businessman (2 Ch 9:14).

Chapt: Cracked (Jer 14:4).

Charger: A platter or large dish (Num 7:13; Mar 6:28; Ezr 1:9).

Chariot: A two-wheeled vehicle drawn by one or more horses. Sisera mobilized 900 war chariots against Israel (Judg. 4:13). Elijah was carried up in a chariot of fire drawn by horses of fire (2 Ki. 2:11). An Ethiopian official was converted to Christianity while riding in a chariot (Acts 8:26-39).

Charity: Love, affection (1 Co 13:1; Rev 2:19; Rom 14:15).

Chasidism (KHAH-sid-ism); Chasidic (khah-SID-ic): From the word “Chasid” meaning “pious.” A branch of Orthodox Judaism that maintains a lifestyle separate from the non-Jewish world.

Chaste: Pure from sexual commerce; undefiled (2 Co 11:2; Tit 2:5)

Chasten: To correct by punishment; to punish (2 Sa 7:14; Rev 3:19)

Check: Repulse, rebuke (Job 20:3)

Cherub or Cherubim: Cherubim/cherubs are angelic beings involved in the worship and praise of God. The cherubim are first mentioned in the Bible in Genesis 3:24. Prior to his rebellion, Satan was a cherub (Ezekiel 28:12-15). The tabernacle and temple along with their articles contained many representations of cherubim (Exodus 25:17-22; 26:1, 31; 36:8; 1 Kings 6:23-35; 7:29-36; 8:6-7; 1 Chronicles 28:18; 2 Chronicles 3:7-14; 2 Chronicles 3:10-13; 5:7-8; Hebrews 9:5).

Chapters 1 and 10 of the book of Ezekiel describe the “four living creatures” (Ezekiel 1:5) as the same beings as the cherubim (Ezekiel 10). Each had four faces—that of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle (Ezekiel 1:10; also 10:14)—and each had four wings. In their appearance, the cherubim “had the likeness of a man” (Ezekiel 1:5). These cherubim used two of their wings for flying and the other two for covering their bodies (Ezekiel 1:6,11, 23). Under their wings the cherubim appeared to have the form, or likeness, of a man’s hand (Ezekiel 1:8;10:7-8, 21).

The imagery of Revelation 4:6-9 also seems to be describing cherubim. The cherubim serve the purpose of magnifying the holiness and power of God. This is one of their main responsibilities throughout the Bible. In addition to singing God’s praises, they also serve as a visible reminder of the majesty and glory of God and His abiding presence with His people.

Chide: To quarrel, contend, strive or argue (Exo 17:2; Jdg 8:1; Psa 103:9)

Chode: Complained (Gen 31:36; Num 20:3)

Choler: Anger, wrath, or irascibility (Dan 8:7, Dan 11:11)

Christ: A titled derived from a Greek word meaning the “Anointed One, ” which in Hebrew is Messiah. Peter recognized Jesus of Nazareth as the Christ (Mark 8:29). Jesus Christ or simply Christ became the name by which our Savior was known to early Christians. See Jesus, Yeshua, and Yehoshua.

Christians: Those who believe in Jesus Christ and practice His teachings. Christ’s followers were at first called “brethren,” “disciples” or people “of the way.” In Antioch about A.D. 45 they were for the first time called Christians (Acts 11:26), a name probably given to them in scorn.

Church: The whole company of Christians. “Christ is the head of the church: and he is the saviour of the body (meaning “group,” of believers)” (Eph. 5:23). Also, a group of Christians meeting regularly for worship, as the “church of God which is at Corinth” (2 Cor. 1:2). The birthday of the church is generally believed to be the day of Pentecost (Acts 2). In the New Testament the word church is not used for the building where Christians worship.

Churl: A rude or coarse man (Isa 32:5, Isa 32:7; 1 Sa 25:3).

Circumcision: An ancient rite symbolizing the covenant that God made with Abraham (Gen. 17:10-14). Circumcision became the symbol of a man’s membership in the Jewish community.

Circumspect: To be cautious, wary, or discreet (Exo 23:13; Eph 5:15).

Clean: Free from defilement or dirt. Under the Hebrew law certain animals are declared clean and others unclean (Lev. 11:1-47; Deut. 14:3-21).

Cleave: To split or divide (Lev 1:17; Psa 74:15) to cling or adhere to (Gen 2:24; Rom 12:9).

Clift: Cleft, hollow (Exo 33:22; Isa 57:5).

Closet: Private room (Joe 2:16; Mat 6:6; Luk 12:3).

Clouts: A piece of cloth, often used as a patch (Jer 38:11, Jer 38:12; Jos 9:5).

Coasts: Borders, region (Exo 10:14; Mat 2:16).

Cockatrice: A serpent (Isa 11:8).

Cockle: A weed, darnel, or tares (Job 31:40).

Coffer: A chest, box, trunk or coffin (1 Sa 6:8, 1 Sa 6:11, 1 Sa 6:15).

Cogitations: To think, reflect, consider, or meditate (Dan 7:28).

Collops: A small piece or slice of flesh (Job 15:27).

Colosse or Colossians: A city in Asia Minor. Paul wrote an epistle to the Christians of this city.

Colt: A young horse or *** (donkey). Jesus rode into Jerusalem on an ***’s colt (Mat. 21:2).

Comeliness: Becoming, fit or suitable (Isa 53:2).

Comely: Fair, pleasing, appropriate (1 Sa 16:8; Job 41:12).

Comforter: The Holy Ghost; The intercessor promised by Christ to help and guide believers (Jn. 14:26; 15:26; 16:7). See Holy Spirit

Commandment: An order given by a person in authority. God gave the Ten Commandments to Moses (Ex. 20:1-17). Jesus taught the two greatest commandments of the law (Mat. 22:36-40).

Commodious: To be profitable, suitable, beneficial (Act 27:12).

Communicant: One who receives Communion. See Communion.

Communicate: To impart; to give to another (Gal 6:6; Phi 4:14).

Communion: In Christian churches, the sacrament of the Lord’s Supper. A ritual during which bread or wafers and wine or grape juice are blessed and partaken of by worshippers as the body and blood of Jesus or as a symbolic of them. The ritual was instituted by Jesus at the Last Supper (Mt. 26:26-29; Mk. 14:22-25; Lk. 22:19, 20; 1 Cor. 11:23-26). Jesus speaks of the bread as His body and the cup as the new testament or new covenant in His blood. Paul speaks of the communion of the body and blood of Christ (1 Cor. 10:16).

Companied: Accompanied (Act 1:21).

Compassion: Sympathy or pity for the sufferings and misfortunes of others. The psalms speak of the compassion of God for people (Ps. 111:4), and Jesus often showed his compassion (Mat. 14:14; Mark 6:34; Luke 7:13).

Compass: To go around, surround, or encircle (Num 21:4; Luk 19:43).

Conceit: Opinion, conception (Pro 18:11).

Concision: A cutting; cut to pieces (Phi 3:2).

Concluded: Included (Rom 11:32; Gal 3:22).

Concord: In agreement, harmony, accord (2 Co 6:15).

Concourse: An assembly of people or a crowd (Pro 1:21; Act 19:40).

Concubine: A wife of inferior condition (Gen 22:24).

Concupiscence: Strong desire or appetite (Rom 7:8; Col 3:5; 1 Th 4:5).

Coney: A small, rabbit like, nocturnal animal.

Confection: A composition or mixture (Exo 30:35).

Confess: To admit to a fault or sin, particularly as a sign of repentance; to acknowledge God’s redeeming acts and openly acknowledge that Jesus is the Messiah, Lord, and Son of God (as Peter’s great confession in Mt. 16:16; Mk. 8:29; Lk. 9:20); To offer praise and thanksgiving to God.

Confederate: A league or joined together (Gen 14:13; Psa 83:5; Isa 7:2).

Congregation: An assembly or gathering.

Consecrate: To set apart or dedicate to a holy purpose (Ex. 28:41).

Constrain: To compel, force, or strongly encourage (Gal 6:12).

Contemn: To scorn, despise, or treat with contempt (Psa 10:13; Eze 21:13).

Contrariwise: On the other hand, on the contrary (2 Co 2:7; Gal 2:7; 1 Pe 3:9).

Contrite: Deeply affected with grief and sorrow (Psa 34:18; Isa 57:15).

Convenient: Suitable, proper (Pro 30:8; Eph 5:4).

Conversant: Dwelling with (Jos 8:35; 1 Sa 25:15).

Conversation: Behavior, conduct, or manner (Psa 37:2; 2 Pe 3:11).

Converted: Changed; As on’es religion or belief (Mt. 18:3: Acts 3:19)

Convince: To prove guilty, vanquish, refute (Tit 1:9; Jude 1:15).

Convocation: An assembly (Num 28:18).

Coriander: Plant with small spicy seeds (Exo 16:31; Num 11:7).

Corinth Or Corinthians: A city of South Greece, capital of the Roman province of Achaia. Paul wrote two epistles to the Christians of Corinth.

Cormorant: A large ravenous bird (Lev 11:17; Deu 14:17; Isa 34:11).

Corn: A small hard particle of grain or seed (Gen 27:28; 1 Ti 5:18).

Corner Stone: Sometimes called a head stone. An important stone laid at a corner of the foundation of a building to bind two sides together. The stone rejected by the builders that “is become the head stone of the corner” (Ps. 118:22) is mentioned by Jesus (Mark 12:10). In the description of the household of God Christ is called “the chief corner stone in whom all the building fitly framed together groweth into an holy temple in the Lord” (Eph. 2:20-21).

Cotes: A shelter for animals or storage (2 Ch 32:28).

Coulter: Blade of a plough (1 Sa 13:20).

Council: The supreme law court as well as the highest administrative body in Jerusalem. The council, composed of the chief priests, the elders and the scribes, tried Jesus (Mark 14:55). The apostles also appeared before the council (Acts 5:27).

Countenance: Appearance of the face (Gen 4:5; Luk 9:29).

Countervail: A counterbalance (Est 7:4).

Counting of the Omer, The: In Judaism, we are obligated to count the days from Passover to Shavu’ot (Lev. 23:15). This period is known as the Counting of the Omer. An omer is a unit of measure. On the second day of Passover, in the days of the Temple, an omer of barley was cut down and brought to the Temple as an offering. This grain offering was referred to as the Omer.

Every night, from the second night of Passover to the night before Shavu’ot, we recite a blessing and state the count of the omer in both weeks and days. So on the 16th day, you would say “Today is sixteen days, which is two weeks and two days of the Omer.” The Orthodox Union has a chart that provides the transliterated Hebrew and English text of the counting day-by-day. Or if you’d prefer an amusing (yet still accurate!) Simpsons-themed discussion of the Omer along with an Omer calendar, check out The Homer Calendar.

The counting is intended to remind us of the link between Passover, which commemorates the Exodus, and Shavu’ot, which commemorates the giving of the Torah. It reminds us that the redemption from slavery was not complete until we received the Torah.

This period is a time of partial mourning, during which weddings, parties, and dinners with dancing are not conducted, in memory of a plague during the lifetime of Rabbi Akiba. Haircuts during this time are also forbidden. The 33rd day of the Omer (the eighteenth of Iyar) is a minor holiday commemorating a break in the plague. The holiday is known as Lag b’Omer. The mourning practices of the omer period are lifted on that date. The word “Lag” is not really a word; it is the number 33 in Hebrew, as if you were to call the Fourth of July “Iv July” (IV being 4 in Roman numerals). See Hebrew Alphabet for more information about using letters as numbers.

There was at one time a dispute as to when the counting should begin. The Pharisees believed that G-d gave Moses an oral Torah along with the written Torah, and according to that oral Torah the word “Shabbat” in Lev. 23:15 referred to the first day of Passover, which is a “Shabbat” in the sense that no work is permitted on the day (Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur are both referred to as “Shabbat” in this sense, though they cannot both occur on a Saturday in the same year; see Lev. 23:24 and 23:32; see also Lev. 23:39 the first and eighth days of Sukkot are called “Shabbat”). In this view, held by most Jews today, the counting begins on the second night of Passover, that is, the day after the non-working day of Passover. The Tzedukim (Sadducees) rejected the idea of an oral Torah and believed that the word “Shabbat” in Lev. 23:15 referred to the Shabbat of the week when Pesach began, so counting would always begin on a Saturday night during Passover. The Sadducees no longer exist; today, only a small sect call the Karaites follow this view.

Cousin: Kinsman, relative (Luk 1:36, Luk 1:58).

Covenant: A promise or agreement between two parties or groups. Moses commanded the people of Israel to enter into a solemn covenant with God that “he may establish thee to day for a people unto himself, and that he may be unto thee a God” (Deut. 29:13). From this “old” covenant, sometimes called a testament, comes the name of the first part of the Bible. Jesus’ death on the cross established the new covenant or testament (Mark 14:24; 1 Cor. 11:25).

Covert: A shelter or hiding place (1 Sa 25:20; Jer 25:38).

Covet: To want something belonging to another person. The tenth commandment says, “Thou shalt not covet they neighbour’s house… nor any thing that is they neighbour’s” (Ex. 20:17).

Cracknels: Light, crisp biscuits (1 Ki 14:3).

Creation: The act of God in making heaven and earth and bringing forth all life; the whole universe (Gen. 1: 1-2:25;Mk. 13:19).

Creator: The maker; Originator; Hence, Creator: God; the Lord (Gen. 1: 1-2:25; Eccl. 12:1; Isa. 40:28; Mk. 13:19;Rom. 1:25).

Creature: A created being; Any living thing that God has made (Gen. 1:21; Rom 1:25; 1 Ti 4:4).

Creed: A statement of beliefs of a religion; Affirmation of faith.

Crib: The manger of a stable (Job 39:9; Pro 14:4; Isa 1:3).

Crisping Pins: Curling pins for a women’s hair (Isa 3:22).

Crookbackt: Hump-backed, hunch-backed (Lev 21:20).

Cross: An instrument of execution. The crucifixion or death of Jesus on the cross is recorded in all four Gospels. The cross became the symbol of Christs’s sacrifice and of the Christian gospel of redemption. Paul declared, “God forbid that I should glory, save in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ” (Gal. 6:14).

Crucifixion, the: Jesus’ execution on the cross by the Romans at the instigation of the Jewish leaders (Mt. 27; Mk. 15; Lk. 23; Jn. 19).

Crucify: To put to death by fastening to a cross (Mt. 20:19; Mt. 27:22; Mk. 15:13; Lk. 23:21; Jn 19:6).

Cruse: A small vessel for holding liquids (oil, honey, water, etc)(1 Sa 26:11; 2 Ki 2:20). While Elijah remained in the widow’s house her cruse of oil never became empty (1 Ki. 17:12-16).

Cubit: A Hebrew measure of length. It was the distance from a man’s elbow to the tip of his middle finger, or about one-and-one-half feet (Deu 3:11). Noah’s ark was 300 cubits long (Gen. 6:15).Cubit of a man, from elbow to fingertip.

Cuckow: Gull, bird (Lev 11:16; Deu 14:15).

Cumbered: To overwhelm, trouble or burden (Luk 10:40, Luk 13:7; Deu 1:12).

Cummin: A plant used as a spice (Isa 28:25, Isa 28:27; Mat 23:23).

Cunning: Skillful (1 Sa 16:16; 1 Ki 7:14).

Curious: Detailed; intricately, or skillfully made (Exo 28:8; Act 19:19).Curious Arts: Magic, sorcery (Act 19:19).Curse: To call on God to punish (Gen. 12:3; Lev. 24:15; Job 2:9; Mt. 5:44; Lk. 6:28; Mt. 26:74; Mk. 14:71; Mk 11:21).Custom: Tribute, tax, toll (Mat 9:9; Mar 2:14; Luk 5:27).

Cyprus: A large island in the Mediterranean 41 miles from the coast of Asia Minor; Home of Barnabas (Acts 4:36); Visited by Paul (Acts 13:4-12; 21:3).


Dainty: Delicate, pleasing, and valuable (Job 33:20; Pro 23:6; Rev 18:14).Dale: A valley (Gen 14:17; 2 Sa 18:18).Dam: A mother animal (Exo 22:30; Lev 22:27; Deu 22:6).Damascus: A very ancient city, capital or Syria; In Old Testament times the capital of the Aramean kingdom. Site of Saul’s conversion (Acts 9:1-22).

d***(ation): Condemnation, judgment, or sentence (Mar 16:16; Rom 14:23; 2 Th 2:12).

Damsel: A young unmarried woman or a girl (Gen 24:14; 1 Ki 1:3).

Dan: The fifth son of Jacob, born of Bilhah (Gen. 30:1-6); One of the 12 tribes of Israel.

Dandled: Danced on the knee; fondled (Isa 66:12).

Daniel: The Jewish prophet at the Babylonian court about whom the Old Testament book of Daniel is written. Interpreted dreams (Dan. 2:1-45) and the hand-writing on the wall (Dan. 5:17-30); Saved by God from the lions (Dan. 6:16-24).

Darling: A term of endearment referring to a dearly loved person (Psa 22:20, Psa 35:17).

Dash: To strike against; to beat towards (Luk 4:11).

Daub: To cover, coat, or plaster (Eze 13:11).

David: The second and greatest king over Israel; Youngest son of Jesse (1 Sam. 17:12, 14); Slew Goliath (1 Sam. 17:41-50); Friend of Jonathan (1 Sam. 19:1-20:42); A fugitive from Saul’s wrath (1 Sam. 21-27; 30). King of Juda (2 Sam. 1:1-5:5). King of Israel (2 Sam. 3:6 – 1 Kgs. 2:11); Brought the ark of God to Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:1-17); Rebellion of his son Absalom (2 Sam. 14-18); His psalm of thanksgiving (2 Sam. 22); Names Solomon, his son, to succeed him (1 Kgs. 1:11-2:12).

Day: The time between sunrise and sunset; A period of 24 hours (Gen. 1:5; Mt. 25:13; Lk. 21:34).

Day of the Lord: The day when God punishes evil (Amos 5:18-20); A day of universal disaster (Isa. 2; 13; 24; Zeph. 1:7-18; 2:2, 3; 3:8); The day of the last judgment and the end of the world (1 Cor. 4:5; 5:5; 1 Thess. 5:2; Rev. 16:14).

Daysman: A mediator, or arbitrator (Job 9:33).

Dayspring: Day break; sunrise (Job 38:12; Luk 1:78).

Dearth: Scarcity of rain; drought (Gen 41:54; 2 Ki 4:38; Act 7:11).

Deacon: A servant or minister; An officer of a local church who assists the minister or priest (Phil. 1:1; Tim. 3:8).

Dead Sea: The salt lake at the mouth of Jordan River. Biblical names: “Salt Sea” (Gen. 14:3; Num. 34:3, 12; Deut. 3:17; Josh. 3:16; 12:3; 15:2; 18:19); “Eastern sea” (Joel 2:20).

Deborah: Rebekah’s nurse and companion (Gen. 35:8). An early “judge” of Israel; Aroused the scattered tribes to opposition to Canaanite oppression; Song of Deborah (Judg. 5:2-31) celebrates her achievement.

Deceivableness: Capable of being deceived (2 Th 2:10).

Deck: To adorn, cover or clothe (Job 40:10; Jer 10:4; Pro 7:16).

Decline: To deviate, or turn aside (Exo 23:2; Deu 17:11; Psa 119:157).

Decree: A command or order from a person in authority. Mary and Joseph went to Bethlehem to be enrolled in response to a decree of the Roman emperor, Caesar Augustus (Luke 2:1).

Dedicate: To set apart for a sacred use. Solomon dedicated the temple in Jerusalem to the worship of God (1 Ki. 8:63).

Dedication, Feast of: An eight-day festival observing the victories of Judas Maccabaeus and the purification and rededication of the temple (Jn. 10:22). Also called Feast of Lights; Hanukkah; Chanukah.

Defile: To make “unclean” or to dishonor (Mark 7:15).

Degrees, Song of: A title given to each of Psalms 120-134; probably so called because of their use in a procession ascending to the temple or for pilgrims going up to Jerusalem.

Delectable: Delightful, pleasing, or delicious (Isa 44:9).

Deliciously: A manner to please or gratify (Rev 18:7, Rev 18:9).

Delightsome: Delightful, enjoyable, or pleasing (Mal 3:12).

Delilah: A woman from the Valley of Sorek; Betrayed Samson to the Philistines (Judg. 16:4-22).

Deliverer, the: God is referred to as “the deliverer” (2 Sam. 22:2; Ps. 18:2; 40:17; 70:5; 144:2; Rom. 11:26)

Deputed: To assign, commit, or authorize (2 Sa 15:3).

Deride: To mock in ridicule, scorn, or contempt (Hab 1:10).

Describe: Divide, mark out (Jos 18:4, Jos 18:6).

Descry: Spy out, describe, or discover (Jdg 1:23).

Desolate: Deserted or laid waste (Zech. 7:14).

Despise: To look down upon or to scorn. “He is despised and rejected of men” (Isa. 53:3).

Despite: contempt, scorn, or spite (Eze 25:6; Rom 1:30; Mat 5:44).

Devil: A fallen angel, who is the spirit or personification of evil; also called Satan (Mat. 4:1); An evil spirit (Lev. 17:7; Deut. 32:17; Mt. 4:24; 9:32; 12:22; Lk. 7:33).

Devotions: Adoration, acts of worship, or praise (Act 17:23).

Diadem: Royal head-dress (Job 29:14; Isa 28:5; Eze 21:26).

Diet: Daily allowance (Jer 52:34).

Disannul: To cancel, abolish, or nullify (Isa 14:27; Job 40:8; Gal 3:17).

Disciple: A follower or pupil who accepts the teaching of his or her master/teacher. The names of Jesus’ 12 closest followers or disciples are recorded in Matthew 10:2-4; Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16; Acts 1:13.

Discomfited: To be defeated, overthrown, or frustrated (Exo 17:13; 1 Sa 31:8).

Dispensation: Dealing out; distribution (1 Co 9:17; Eph 1:10; Col 1:25).

Dispersion: The widespread settlement of Jews outside of Palestine from the time of the Exile through the following centuries.

Disputation: An argument, debate, discussion, or controversy (Act 15:2; Rom 14:1).

Disquiet: Disturb, trouble, and make restless (Jer 50:34; 1 Sa 28:15; Pro 30:21).

Dissembled: To disguise, pretend, or act hypocritically (Gal 2:13; Psa 26:4; Pro 26:24).

Dissimulation: To pretend, hypocrisy or deception (Rom 12:9; Gal 2:13).

Distil: To drip or trickle down (Deu 32:2; Job 36:28).

Divers: Different, diverse, varied (Deu 22:9; Jam 1:2).

Divination: Foretelling future events; discovering things secret (Num 22:7; Deu 18:10).

Doctor: Teacher, instructor (Luk 2:46, Luk 5:17; Act 5:34).

Doctrine: Teaching or instruction, particularly that of Jesus or the apostles concerning God’s will (Job 11:4; Jn. 7:16;Heb. 6:2).

Doleful: Sorrowful, mournful, or grieved (Isa 13:21; Mic 2:4).

Dome of the Rock: The Dome of the Rock is a Muslim shrine that was built on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem in AD 691. The Dome of the Rock is part of a larger Muslim holy area that takes up a significant portion of what is also known as Mount Moriah in the heart of Jerusalem. The Dome of the Rock gets its name from the fact that it is built over the highest part (the dome) of Mount Moriah which is where Jews and Christians believe Abraham was prepared to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice to God (Genesis 22:1–14).

It is also considered to be the location of the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite, where David built an altar to the Lord (2 Samuel 24:18). It is also on or very near the site that Herod’s Temple stood before it was destroyed in AD 70 by the Roman army. Some even believe the rock might have been the location of the Holy of Holies that was a part of the Jewish Temple where the Jewish High Priest would enter once a year to make atonement for Israel’s sins.

The Dome of the Rock is part of the larger Islamic area known as the Noble Sanctuary or Al-Haram al-Sharif. This area includes over 35 acres and contains both the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock. After Muslims took control of Jerusalem in AD 637, Islamic leaders commissioned the building of the Dome of the Rock in AD 685. It took almost seven years to complete and today is one of the world’s oldest Islamic structures.

The platform or Temple Mount area that houses the Dome of the Rock and Al-Aqsa Mosque was built in the first century AD under the rule of Herod the Great as part of his rebuilding of the second Jewish Temple. Jesus worshiped at Herod’s Temple and it was there that He prophesied its destruction (Matthew 24:1–2). Jesus’ prophecy was fulfilled when the temple was destroyed by the Roman army in AD 70.

The Temple Mount area where the Dome of the Rock is located is important to not only the Muslims who control it now, but also to Jews and Christians. As the place where the Jewish temple once stood, the Temple Mount is considered to be the holiest place in Judaism and is the place where Jews and some Christians believe that the third and final temple will be built. This area is also the third holiest site in Islam. Because of its importance to both Jews and Muslims, the Temple Mount area is a highly contested religious site over which both the Palestinian Authority and Israel claim sovereignty.

The Dome of the Rock is an impressive structure, easily seen in many photographs of Jerusalem. Not only is it on top of Mount Moriah, but it was also built on an elevated platform raising it up another 16 feet above the rest of the Temple Mount area. Inside at the center of the Dome is the highest point of Mount Moriah. This bare rock measures about 60 feet by 40 feet and rises about 6 feet from the floor of the shrine. While many people mistakenly refer to the Dome of Rock as a mosque, it was actually built as a shrine for pilgrims, although it is located near an important Muslim mosque.

Some believe the Dome of the Rock was built because, according to Muslim legend, the Prophet Muhammad was taken to Mount Moriah by the angel Gabriel, and from there Muhammad ascended into heaven and met all the prophets that had preceded him, as well as seeing God sitting on His throne surrounded by angels. However, this story does not appear in any Islamic texts until several decades after the shrine was built, which leads some to believe the primary reason the Dome was built was to celebrate the Islamic victory over Christians at Jerusalem and not to honor the supposed ascension of Muhammad.

When Israel took control over that part of Jerusalem after the Six-Day War in 1967, Israeli leaders allowed an Islamic religious trust to have authority over the Temple Mount and the Dome of the Rock as a way of helping keep the peace. Since that time non-Muslims have been allowed limited access to the area but are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount.

Dote: To say or think foolishly (Jer 50:36; Eze 23:5; 1 Ti 6:4).

Doth: Do (Gen 3:5; Rev 19:11).

Doting: Excessive fondness (1 Ti 6:4).

Dove: A gentle bird belonging to the pigeon family. Because of its appearance at the time of Jesus’ baptism, it has become a symbol of the Holy Spirit, as well as of purity (Mark 1:10).

Downsitting: Sitting down (Psa 139:2).

Doxology: A hymn, usually in a set formula, for expressing praise to God. Luke 2:14 (“Glory to God in the highest”) has influenced Christian doxologies.

Drams: A weight of measure (1 Ch 29:7; Ezr 2:69; Neh 7:70).

Draught: To something derived or extracted (Luk 5:4, Luk 5:9), a privy, bathroom, or sewer (2 Ki 10:27; Mat 15:17).

Dromedary: A one hump camel (Jer 2:23; 1 Ki 4:28; Est 8:10).

Duke: A chief, commander, leader (Gen 36:15; 1 Ch 1:54).

Dulcimer: A stringed instrument (Dan 3:5, Dan 3:10, Dan 3:15).

Dung: Manure, excrement, or anything morally filthy (Exo 29:14; Phi 3:8).

Dureth: Endures, goes on; To last, persist, endure, or continue in existence or state (Mat 13:21).

Durst: Dare (Mar 12:34).


Eagle: A bird of prey noted of its size, strength, unusual powers of flight and keen vision (Ps. 103:5).Ear(ing): Plough the ground, (Gen 45:6, Exo 34:21; Deu 21:4).Earnest: Serious, important, or zealous (Rom 8:19); a pledge or deposit securing a contract (2 Co 1:22, 2 Co 5:5; Eph 1:14).Easter: A Christian festival celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ; On a Sunday between March 22nd and April 25th.

Eden, Garden Of: A garden of trees planted by the Lord (Gen. 2:8) in which Adam and Eve first lived; Symbolically identified with Paradise. Described most notably in the Book of Genesis (Gen. 2-3), but also mentioned, directly or indirectly, in Ezekiel, Isaiah and elsewhere in the Old Testament. Actual site unknown but believed to have been at the headwaters of the Tigris and Euphrates in northern Iraq, in Africa, in the Persian Gulf, and in Lebanon.

Edom; Edomites: A country to the East and South of Israel; its people had a close relationship to the Israelites, being descendants of Esau.

Effeminate: Unmanly or unnaturally delicate, soft, or weak (1 Co. 6:9).

Egypt: A land of North East Africa. Temporary home of Abraham (Gen. 12:10-20); Joseph sold “into Egypt” (Gen. 37:28, 36); Joseph as governor (Gen. 41:37-47:26); Israel in bondage (Ex. 1:1-12:36); The Exodus (Ex. 12:37 – 14-31); Jesus taken there (Mt. 2:13).

Elder: A high official or ruler. Moses governed the Israelites with the help of 70 elders, including the heads of tribes and representatives of family groups (Num. 11:16-17). The elders wee one group in the council at Jerusalem that accused Jesus (Mark 15:1). Paul appointed elders to guide and rule the churches (Acts 14:23). The author of 2 and 3 John describes himself as an elder.

Elders: Seniors; Among the Jews, the old and mature men who where civil and religious leaders; In the Christian church, leaders of the local church (Ex. 24:9; Mt. 15:2; Mk. 7:3; Acts 14:23; 1 Tim. 5:17; Rev. 4:4).

Elect: Chosen by God (Mark 13:27).

Eli: The priest of Shiloh to whom the boy Samuel was brought (1 Sam. 1-4).

Elias: See Elijah.

Elijah or Elias: A prophet from Tishbe to Gilead in the northern kingdom; Fed by ravens (1 Kgs. 17:6); Performs miracles (1 Kgs. 17:14-24; 20:30; 2 Kgs. 1:10-12; 2:8); Taken up by a whirlwind into heaven (2 Kgs. 2:11). Malachi prophesies his return before the day of the Lord (Mal.4:5). In New Testament times, some thought Jesus to be Elijah (Mt. 16:14; Lk. 9:8); Jesus stated that John the Baptist was the fulfillment of the prophecy about the return of Elias (Matthew 11:7–14; Malachi 4:5-6 and Matthew 17:10-13); At the Transfiguration, Elijah appears with Moses (Mt. 17:3, 4; Mk. 9:4, 5).

Elisabeth: Wife of the priest, Zacharias, and mother of John the Baptist (Lk. 1:5-66).

Elisha: A prophet; Disciple and successor to Elijah; Performed many miracles (2 Kgs. 2:14-24; 3:16-20; 4:2-7, 32-44; 5:10-14; 27; 6:5-7, 18-20); Contact with his bones revives a dead man (2 Kgs. 13:20, 21).

Elohim or Elohiym (pronounced ‘el-o-heem’): Elohim is a grammatically plural noun for “gods” or “deity” in Biblical Hebrew. In Modern Hebrew, it is often referred to in the singular despite the -im ending that denotes plural masculine nouns in Hebrew.

Elohim is a Hebrew word that denotes “God” or “god.” It is one of the most common names for God in the Old Testament, starting in the very first verse: “In the beginning [Elohim] created the heavens and the earth” (Genesis 1:1). The name Elohim occurs over 2,500 times in the Tanakh.

The basic meaning behind the name Elohim is one of strength or power of effect. Elohim is the infinite, all-powerful God who shows by His works that He is the creator, sustainer, and supreme judge of the world. “Bring to an end the violence of the wicked and make the righteous secure—you, the righteous [Elohim] who probes minds and hearts” (Psalm 7:9).

Sometimes the word Elohim is shortened to El and used as part of a longer name. El Shaddai, for example, means “God Almighty” (Genesis 49:24); El Elyon means “God Most High” (Deuteronomy 26:19); and El Roi means “God Who Sees” (Genesis 16:13). Personal names of people can include the name of God: Daniel (“El Is My Judge”), Nathanael (“Gift of El”), Samuel (“Heard by El”), Elijah (“El Is Yahweh”), and Ariel (“Lioness of El”) are examples. Place names, too, can contain the shortened form of Elohim: Bethel (“House of El”), Jezreel (“El Will Sow”), and, of course, Israel (“Prince of El”) are examples.

When Jesus cried out from the cross, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” (Mark 15:34), He addressed the Father with a form of Elohim, Eloi. Mark translates Jesus’ statement for us: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

Making Bible translation more complex is the fact that Elohim has other usages in the Old Testament besides referring to the One True God. In some contexts, elohim refers to human rulers or judges (see Psalm 82:6 and John 10:34)—the idea is that such people are to act as God’s representatives on earth, exercising authority wisely and ensuring justice. The warning of Psalm 82 is that the human elohim must answer to the Supreme Elohim some day. Elsewhere, elohim is used to refer to false gods (e.g., Deuteronomy 4:28). “They have forsaken me and worshiped Ashtoreth the [elohe] of the Sidonians, Chemosh the [elohe] of the Moabites, and Molek the [elohe] of the Ammonites” (1 Kings 11:33). Note that elohe is a form of elohim used with qualifying words or phrases and translated “god of.”

Nothing in the Torah prohibits a person from pronouncing the Name of God. Indeed, it is evident from scripture that God’s Name was pronounced routinely. Many common Hebrew names contain “Yah” or “Yahu,” part of God’s four-letter Name. The Name was pronounced as part of daily services in the Temple.

The Mishnah confirms that there was no prohibition against pronouncing The Name in ancient times. In fact, the Mishnah recommends using God’s Name as a routine greeting to a fellow Jew. Berakhot 9:5. However, by the time of the Talmud, it was the custom to use substitute Names for God. Some rabbis asserted that a person who pronounces YHVH according to its letters (instead of using a substitute) has no place in the World to Come, and should be put to death. Instead of pronouncing the four-letter Name, we usually substitute the Name “Adonai,” or simply say “Ha-Shem” (lit. The Name).

Although the prohibition on pronunciation applies only to the four-letter Name, Jews customarily do not pronounce any of God’s many Names except in prayer or study. The usual practice is to substitute letters or syllables, so that Adonai becomes Adoshem or Ha-Shem; Elohaynu and Elohim become Elokaynu and Elokim; Eil becomes Keil, etc.

The Hebrew word translated “gods” in Psalm 82:6 is Elohim. It usually refers to the one true God, but it does have other uses. Psalm 82:1 says, “God presides in the great assembly; he gives judgment among the gods.” It is clear from the next three verses that the word “gods” refers to magistrates, judges, and other people who hold positions of authority and rule. Calling a human magistrate a “god” indicates three things: 1) he has authority over other human beings, 2) the power he wields as a civil authority is to be feared, and 3) he derives his power and authority from God Himself, who is pictured as judging the whole earth in verse 8.

This use of the word “gods” to refer to humans is rare, but it is found elsewhere in the Old Testament. For example, when God sent Moses to Pharaoh, He said, “See, I have made you like God to Pharaoh” (Exodus 7:1). This simply means that Moses, as the messenger of God, was speaking God’s words and would therefore be God’s representative to the king. The Hebrew word Elohim is translated “judges” in Exodus 21:6 and 22:8, 9, and 28.

The whole point of Psalm 82 is that earthly judges must act with impartiality and true justice, because even judges must stand someday before the Judge. Verses 6 and 7 warn human magistrates that they, too, must be judged: “I said, `You are gods; you are all sons of the Most High.’ But you will die like mere men; you will fall like every other ruler.” This passage is saying that God has appointed men to positions of authority in which they are considered as gods among the people. They are to remember that, even though they are representing God in this world, they are mortal and must eventually give an account to God for how they used that authority.

Now, let’s look at how Jesus uses this passage. Jesus had just claimed to be the Son of God (John 10:25-30). The unbelieving Jews respond by charging Jesus with blasphemy, since He claimed to be God (verse 33). Jesus then quotes Psalm 82:6, reminding the Jews that the Law refers to mere men—albeit men of authority and prestige—as “gods.” Jesus’ point is this: you charge me with blasphemy based on my use of the title “Son of God”; yet your own Scriptures apply the same term to magistrates in general. If those who hold a divinely appointed office can be considered “gods,” how much more can the One whom God has chosen and sent (verses 34-36)?

In contrast, we have the serpent’s lie to Eve in the Garden. His statement, “your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil” (Genesis 3:5), was a half-truth. Their eyes were opened (verse 7), but they did not become like God. In fact, they lost authority, rather than gaining it. Satan deceived Eve about her ability to become like the one true God, and so led her into a lie. Jesus defended His claim to be the Son of God on biblical and semantic grounds—there is a sense in which influential men can be thought of as gods; therefore, the Messiah can rightly apply the term to Himself. Human beings are not “gods” or “little gods.” We are not God. God is God, and we who know Christ are His children.

Emboldened: To make bold (1 Co 8:10).

Emerods: Hemorrhoids, swelling (Deu 28:27; 1 Sa 5:6).

Eminent: Prominent, outstanding, or distinguished (Eze 16:24, Eze 16:31, Eze 16:39, Eze 17:22).

Emmanuel: See Immanuel.

Emulation: A jealous rivalry (Rom 11:14, Gal 5:20).

Endamage: To inflict damage upon, injure, or discredit (Ezr 4:13).

Endued: To introduce, to bring to a certain condition (Gen 30:20; 2 Ch 2:12; Luk 24:49).

Engines: A mechanical device or machine; weapons of warfare (2 Ch 26:15; Eze 26:9).

Engrafted: To be grafted in, inserted, implanted, or introduced (Jam 1:21).

Enjoin: To direct, command, or impose (Phm 1:8).

Enlargement: Freedom, relief (Est 4:14).

Ensample: An example, pattern, model, or sample (Phi 3:17; 2 Th 3:9; 2 Pe 2:6).

Ensign: A signal, sign, token, emblem (Num 2:2; Isa 5:26; Zec 9:16).

Ensue: Follow after (1 Pe 3:11).

Entreat or Intreat: To ask earnestly or to plead, as “Intreat me not to leave thee” (Ruth 1:16).

Environ: To surround, or to envelop (Jos 7:9).

Ephah: A Hebrew dry measure equal to more than a bush (1 Sam. 1:24). About 8 gallons (Exo 16:36; Eze 45:11).

Ephesus or Ephesians: A seaport in the Roman province of Asia; Visited by Paul on his second and third journeys. Paul’s NT epistle to the Ephesians seems to be a general letter to the churches or Asia Minor.

Ephod: A garment similar to an apron. It was worn by the high priest under his breastpiece. The boy Samuel wore a linen ephod while ministering in the temple at Shiloh (1 Sam. 2:18). Cape worn by priests (Exo 39:2.5).

Ephraim: The younger son of Joseph; Adopted by Jacob (Gen. 41:1); Ancestor of one of the most powerful of the 12 tribes of Israel.

Episcopal: Governed by bishops, as applied to Christian churches.

Epistle: A letter. Many New Testament books are in the form of letters. A sent letter (Act 15:30).

Ere: Before or until (Exo 1:19; Joh 4:49).

Esau: Son of Isaac and Rebekah who traded his birthright to his younger twin brother Jacob for a bowl of pottage (Gen. 25:22-34; 27; 33:1-16).

Eschew: To shun, avoid, abstain from (1 Pe 3:11).

Espoused: Promised in marriage; betrothed; engaged (2 Sa 3:14; Mat 1:18; Luk 1:27).

Espy: See, perceive (Jos 14:7; Jer 48:19).

Essenes: A Jewish community in Palestine at the time of Jesus; Strict adherents of Jewish law.

Estate: Condition, position, or status (1 Ch 17:17; Jude 6; Eze 36:11; Mar 6:21).

Esther: A Jewess of Shushan who became Ahasuerus’s queen and thwarted a plot to kill all the Jews, later commemorated by the Jewish festival of Purim. The Book of Esther tells her story.

Eucharist: Literally “thanksgiving”; The name sometimes used by Christians to refer to the rite of the Lord’s Supper.

Eunuchs – Refers to a man who is not castrated but who is impotent, celibate, or otherwise not inclined to marry and procreate for religious reasons. May also refer to a an who was castrated (for religious, custom, or government reasons).

Euphrates: The largest river in West Asia; Marks North boundary of territory promised by the Lord to Israel (Gen. 15:18; Deut. 1:7; 11-24; Josh. 1:4).

Euroclydon: A tempestuous north-easterly wind (Act 27:14).

Evangelist: A traveling preacher who proclaimed the Good News of Christianity. Philip, one of the seven men appointed to help the apostles (Acts 6:1-6), was later described as an evangelist (Acts 21:8).

Evil: Wickedness; Slanderous or injurious actions (Gen. 2:9; Ps. 23:4; Ps. 37:27; Mt. 6:13, 27:23; Mk. 15:14; Lk. 23:22; 1 Tim. 6:10).

Evilfavouredness: Ugliness, deformity (Deu 17:1).

Exchanger: Money-changer; banker (Mat 25:27).

Execration: A curse, detestation; abhorrence (Jer 42:18, Jer 44:12).

Exile: Forced absence from one’s home or country. The Babylonian exile began in 598 B.C.

Exodus: The going out of Israel from Egypt as recorded in Exodus. It includes the deliverance from slavery, the wandering through the wilderness, the covenant with the Lord at Mount Sinai, and the provision of the tabernacle and ark of the covenant.

Ezekiel: A major Jewish prophet; Author of the Old Testament book of Ezekiel; One of the captives of Babylonian exile. Vision of God (Ezek. 1:4-28); Parable of the two eagles and the vine (Ezek. 17:1-24); The fall of Jerusalem (Ezek. 24:1-27); Various prophecies about other nations (Ezek. 25-32).

Ezra: A priest and scribe; Author of the Old Testament book of Ezra, which details the first return of the Israelites from Babylon and the rebuilding of the temple.


Fain: Gladly, willingly, or be content to (Job 27:22; Luk 15:16).

Fairs: Anything gotten at a sale (Eze 27:12).

Faith: Belief and trust in God and in Jesus Christ. “Faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.” (Hebrews 11:1).  Faith is defined and discussed in detail in Hebrews 11.

Familiar: Intimate, well acquainted, or in close association (Lev 19:31; Isa 29:4).

Famine: Extreme scarcity of food when nearly everyone is hungry. Lack of rain (1 Ki. 18:1-2), insects (Joel 1:4-12), and warfare (Jer. 32:24) all led to famines in the Bible. During a famine in Canaan Joseph’s brothers went to Egypt to buy grain (Gen. 42:1-5).

Farthing: A fourth part of a penny (Mat 5:26, Mat 10:29; Mar 12:42).

Fast: To go without food for a religious reason, usually to show humility, penitence or grief. Jesus fasted 40 days in the wilderness (Mat. 4:2).

Fat: Good, rich, full, prosperous (Neh 8:10; Pro 11:25; Isa 28:1).

Fats: A vat or vessel (Joe 2:24, Joe 3:13).

Fear Of The Lord: Deep awe and reverence for the majesty and holiness of God. “The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge” (Prov. 1:7). This fear is not to be confused with being afraid (Acts 13:26).

Feast: A happy religious celebration that usually included eating. The three great Hebrew festivals were the Passover, the Feast of Pentecost or First Fruits and the Feast of Tabernacles. Jesus attended a marriage feast at Cana (John 2:8). Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread (Ex. 12:1-30; Lev. 23:4-14; Deut. 16:1-8). Feast of Weeks or Pentecost (Lev. 23:15-21; Deut. 16:9-12). Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:34-36; Deut. 16:13-15). Purim (Esther 9:20-28). Feast of Dedication (Jn. 10:22).

Feast of Tabernacles: See Sukkot.

Feebleminded: To be weak, infirm, frail, or faint (1 Th 5:14).

Feign: To invent, pretend (2 Samuel 14:2; 1 Ki 14:5; Luk 20:20).

Felloes: Part of a wheel rim (1 Ki 7:33).

Fellowship: Friendly association among people having the same or similar interest. The New Testament mentions fellowship among believers (Acts 2:42) and fellowship with God (1 John 1:3).

Fens: A marsh or a bog (Job 40:21).

Fetters: Shackles, metal bands (Psa 105:18). Two bands connected with a chain and used to fasten someone’s (usually a prisoner’s) feet so that the person could not run away. In Luke 8:29 a demon-possessed man was bound with chains and fetters.

Fig: The pear-shaped fruit of the fig tree (1 Sam. 25:18). The very large leaves of fig trees provided a cool shade (John 1:50). Jesus told a parable about a fig tree (Luke 13:6).

Fillet: An ornamental narrow band that goes around something (Jer 52:21).

Firkins: A small wooden vessel or cask equal to one-fourth barrel (Joh 2:6).

Firmament: The region of the air; the sky or heavens; or the sphere of the stars (Gen 1:6; Dan 12:3).

First-Born: The eldest son, who became head of the family and inherited a double share of his father’s estate. First-born sons wee consecrated to God (Ex. 13:2; Luke 2:22-24).

Firstling: The first offspring of an animal (Exo 13:12; Deu 33:17).

Fitches: An herb seed used as a spice or seasoning (Isa 28:25, Eze 4:9).

Flag: An aquatic plant like a reed or rush (Job 8:11).

Flagon: A container for holding liquids (2 Sa 6:19; 1 Ch 16:3).

Flanks: The fleshy part of an animal between the ribs and the hip (Lev 3:4; Job 15:27).

Flay: To skin or strip off the skin (Lev 1:6; 2 Ch 29:34; Mic 3:3).

Fleshhook: A hook for fish (1 Sa 2:13, 1 Sa 2:14).

Flock: A group of sheep. Jesus often referred to people as sheep and said to his disciples, “Fear not, little flock” (Luke 12:32).

Flowers: The menstrual discharge (Lev 15:24, Lev 15:33).

Flux: The flow of blood or any liquid discharge from the bowels (Act 28:8).

Fool: A person who lacks wisdom and good judgement. “The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God” (Ps. 14:1). Proverbs and Ecclesiastes often mention fools.

Forbear: To bear, endure, submit to, have patience with, tolerate(Exo 23:5; 1 Th 3:5).

Ford: A shallow place whee a river may be crossed by wading (Josh. 2:7).

Foreship: The bow of a ship (Act 27:30).

Forsake: To leave or abandon someone or something. When Jesus was arrested the disciples “all forsook him, and fled” (Mark 14:50).

Forswear: Renounce earnestly, deny, or repudiate under an oath (Mat 5:33).

Forthwith: Immediately, at once, without delay (Ezr 6:8; Act 21:30).

Fortress: A fortified place of safety in war. The psalms speak of God as “my refuge and my fortress: My God; in him will I trust” (Ps. 91:2).

Forum: Market place (Act 28:15).

Forward: Eager, zealous, ready, or inclined to do something (2 Co 8:10, 2 Co 8:17; Gal 2:10).

Fountain: A spring of water gushing from the ground or from rocks. Fountains provided life-giving water (Deut. 8:7). It was said of God, “with thee is the fountain of life” (Ps. 36:9).

Foursquare: Square (Exo 27:1; Rev 21:16).

Frankincense: A fragrant gum from trees growing in Arabia, India and Africa. It was among the gifts brought to the infant Jesus (Mat. 2:22). Also see incense.

Frankly: Openly, freely (Luk 7:42).

Fray: Frighten, scare, terrify, or horrify (Deu 28:26; Jer 7:32; Zec 1:21).

Fret: Grieve, be angry (Psa 37:1).

Frontlets: Something worn on the forehead (Exo 13:16; Deu 6:8, Deu 11:18).

Froward: Stubborn, perverse, difficult, evil-disposed (Deu 32:20; 1 Pe 2:18). See phylacteries.

Furbish: Polish, sharpen (Jer 46:4).

Fugitive: A person who runs away because he is in danger. Cain became a fugitive after he had killed his brother (Gen. 4:12). In this verse Cain is also called a vegabond, or “wanderer”.

Fuller: A person who cleans, bleaches or dyes cloth. Fullers, after using soap to clean garments (Mal. 3:2), spread them out to dry in a fuller’s field (Isa. 7:3). At Jesus’ Transfiguration his garments appeared whiter than any fuller could have bleached them (Mark 9:3).

Furlong: 220 yards (Luk 24:13; Joh 6:19; Rev 14:20).

Furniture: Equipment, harness (Gen 31:34).


G-d: A way of avoiding writing a name of G-d, to avoid the risk of the sin of erasing or defacing the Name.

Gabriel: An angel of high rank (Dan. 8:16; 9:21; Lk 1:19, 26).

Gad: The seventh son of Jacob; Born of Leah’s maid Zilpah (Gen. 30:10, 11); Ancestor of the tribe of Gad.

Gaddest: To move about restlessly or roam idly (Jer 2:36).

Gainsay: To speak against, contradict, oppose, or hinder (Luk 21:15).

Galatia; Galatians: A region and Roman province in Asia Minor. Paul, in he New Testament epistle to the Galatians, tells of his own conversion.

Galilee: A region of North Palestine, including the Sea of Galilee on the East side. Old Testament references include: Solomon gives 20 cities of Galilee to Hiram (1 Kgs. 9:11); The prophecy of Isaiah (Isa. 9:1) concerning “Galilee of the Gentiles” (Mt. 4:13). Called “land of Gennesaret” (Mt. 14:34; Mk. 6:53), Jesus’ active ministry was almost entirely within its borders.

Galilee, Sea of: The larger of the two freshwater lakes on the Jordan River system. Site of miracles; The great catch of fish (Lk. 5:1-11); Jesus stills the sea (Mt. 8:23-26; Mk. 4:35-39; Lk. 8:22-24; Jesus walks on the sea (Mt. 14:25-27;Mk. 6:48-51; Jn. 6:29, 20). Also called “Chinnereth” (Num. 34:11; Deut. 3:17; Josh 13:27); “Chinneroth” (Josh. 12:3); “Gennesaret” (Lk. 5:1); And “Tiberias” (Jn. 6:1; 21:1).

Gallant: To be admirable, noble, finely dressed, or beautiful in appearance (Isa 33:21).

Garner: A storehouse for grain, barn (Mat 3:12; Luk 3:17).

Gat: Got (Psa 116:3).

Gate: An opening in a city wall. Heavy doors of the city gates were closed at night and in times of danger. In open spaces at the city gates traders sold their wares, judges heard cases and people gathered to listen to news. The temple in Jerusalem (Acts 3:2) and some private houses (Acts 12:14) were protected at gates.

Gay: Happy, joyful, cheerful, or fine (Jam 2:3).

Gazingstock: The object of someone’s gaze or stare (Nah 3:6; Heb 10:33).

Gemera: See Talmud.

Gender: To produce, breed, generate, or give rise to (Lev 19:19; 2 Ti 2:23).

Gennesaret: A fertile plain on he shore of the Sea of Galilee. See also Galilee.

Gentiles: People who were not Hebrews. Paul preached the Christian message to the Gentiles and “opened the door of faith” to them (Acts 14:27).

Gerah: One twentieth of a shekel (Exo 30:13).

Gethsemane: A garden on the Mount of Olives where Jesus prayed and where He was betrayed by Judas (Mt. 26:36;Mk. 14:32).

Gin: A trap or snare (Job 18:9; Isa 8:14; Amo 3:5).

Girdle: Belt (Exo 28:4; Rev 1:13).

Glass: A mirror (Job 37:18; 1 Co 13:12; 2 Co 3:18; Jam 1:23).

Glean: To gather grain left in a field by the reapers. The law granted this privilege to poor people (Lev. 19:9). Ruth gleaned in the fields of Boaz in Bethlehem (Ruth 2:2).

Glede: A bird (Deu 14:13).

Glistering: Shining, sparkling, or glittering (1 Ch 29:2; Luk 9:29).

Glorify: To praise, worship or adore. When Jesus healed the paralyzed man the people “were all amazed, and glorified God” (Mark 2:12).

Glory: Praise, honor and thanksgiving offered to God (Ps. 19:1). Also, a brilliant light indicating the presence of God (Ex. 24:16-17; Luke 2:9).

Godhead: The trinity (Act 17:29; Rom 1:20; Col 2:9).

Goodman: The male head of the household (Pro 7:19; Mat 20:11; Mar 14:14).

Gospel: The “Good News” about Jesus Christ (Mark 1:1), about the kingdom of heaven (Mat. 4:23) and about “the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth” (Rom. 1:16). The four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke andJohn, record the life and teachings of Jesus.

Ghost, Holy: See Holy Ghost.

Gideon: A prophet of Israel especially favored by the Lord with revelations and unusual powers (Jud. 6:11-8:35).

Gilead: A rugged, mountainous region East of Jordan. Possibly also a city (Judg. 10:17; Hos. 6:8) and a tribe (Judg. 5:17).

Gilgal: The name of several places in the Old Testament, one of hte them a city of the tribe of Benjamin, near Jericho; Site of the first encampment of the Israelites after crossing the Jordan (Jost. 3-4); There Saul was made king (1 Sam. 11:14, 15).

Glad Tidings: Good news; The gospel (Lk. 1:19; 8:1; Acts 13:32; Rom. 10:15).

gods: With lower case “g” in the Bible means idols (Ex. 20:3).

Golden Rule: A commandment given by Jesus in the Sermon on the Mount (Mt. 7:12; Lk. 6:31).

Golgotha: Place where Jesus was crucified (Mt. 27:33; Mk. 15:22; Jn. 19:17).

Gomorrah: One of the two cities destroyed by the Lord because of their wickedness (Gen. 19:24-28).

Good Friday: The Friday before Easter; The anniversary of the crucifixion of Jesus.

Gospel: Good news; Glad tidings. Hence, the teachings of Jesus and of the apostles. The New Testament books ofMatthew, Mark, Luke, and John are called the Gospels.

Governor: A person appointed to rule a town, province or country, such as Joseph (Gen. 42:6), Nehemiah (Neh. 5:14) or Pontius Pilate (Mat. 27:2).

Grace: The unearned or unmerited kindness, mercy and forgiveness of God (Deut. 9:4-6; Eph. 2:4-5).

Graven Images: Carved or sculptured idols of wood or stone. The second commandment forbids making graven images and worshiping them as gods (Ex. 20:4-5).

Greaves: Armor for the lower leg (1 Sa 17:6).

Grisled: An animal that gray colored, either whole or spotted (Gen 31:10; Zec 6:3, Zec 6:6).

Gross: Thick, powerful, or big (Isa 60:2; Jer 13:16; Mat 13:15).

Guile: To deceive or trick (Exo 21:14; Rev 14:5).


Habakkuk: A prophet of Judah; The Old Testament book which bears his name is the eighth of the 12 Minor Prophets.

Habergeon: A sleeveless coat or jacket of armor (Exo 28:32; Job 41:26).

Hades: Greek translation of the word “sheol”. See Sheol.

Haft: A handle (Jdg 3:22).

Haggai: A Jewish prophet contemporary with Zechariah; The tenth of the 12 Minor Prophets of the Old Testament.

Hale: To draw, fetch, haul, or pull (Luk 12:58).

Hallelujah: “Praise the Lord”. See Alleluia.

Hallow or Hallowed: To make holy, consecrated, or set apart (Exo 28:38; Eze 44:24). “Hallowed by thy name” (Mat. 6:9) means “May your name be reverenced as holy and sacred”.

Halt: Lame or crippled (1 Ki 18:21; Psa 38:17).

Handmaid: A female personal attendant, slave or servant (Gen 16:1; Luk 1:38).

Hands, Laying on of: A symbolic ritual. Of divine blessing (Mt. 19:13-15), sometimes accompanied by the gift of the Holy Spirit (Acts 19:6). Of divine healing (Mk. 7:32). Of consecration of a man for a specific office (Acts 13:2, 3; 1 Tim. 4:14). Of dedication of an animal as for sacrifice (Lev. 16:21).

Hanukkah: Hebrew word for “dedication.” See Chanukkah; See Feast of Dedication.

Hap: To happen by chance, or accident (Rth 2:3, 1 Sa 14:30; Mar 11:13).

Hard: Close, near, or in close proximity (Lev 3:9; Jdg 9:52; 1 Ki 21:1).

Hardly: With difficulty (Mat 19:23; Mar 10:23).

Hart: A male deer (Deu 12:15; Isa 35:6).

Haunt: A habit, custom, habitation, or place of frequent abode (1 Sa 23:22; Eze 26:17).

Haughty: Overbearing; proud.

Heady: To be headstrong, domineering, overbearing (2 Ti 3:4).

Heath: Open uncultivated land (Jer 17:6, Jer 48:6).

Heaven or Heavens: The sky; The space in which the sun, the moon, and the stars move; The firmament (Gen. 1:8;Job 26:13; Ps. 19:1; Ps. 104:2; Isa. 40:22; Acts 10:11; Isa. 65:17; Rev. 21:1; Mt. 5:18; Mt. 6:9; Lk. 11:2; Acts 1:10;2 Cor. 5:1).

Hebrews: Members of a Semitic tribe. They were also called Israelites and, after the exile, Jews. Abraham was believed to be the father of the Hebrews (Gen. 14:13). The descendants of Eber (Gen. 10:21) See also Israel, Jew.

Hebron: An ancient cit in the mountains of Juda, 19 miles South of Jerusalem. Here Abraham purchased a cave for a family burial place (Gen. 23:1-20). David’s capital city for the first seven and one-half years of his reign (2 Sam. 2:1-5:5).

Helmet: A metal covering to protect the head from injury in battle. Saul’s helmet was of bronze (1 Sam. 17:5, 38). The “Helmet of salvation” was a spiritual protection (Isa. 59:17; Eph. 6:17).

Helve: A handle (Deu 19:5).

Hence: From this time forward, from this place forward (Gen 37:17).

Herbs: Grasses or soft edible plants. Bitter herbs, such as chicory, endive or watercress, were eaten with the Passover meal (Ex. 12:8).

Herod: The name of the royal family that ruled in Palestine, with the permission of the Romans, from about 55 B.C. to A.D. 70. Herod the Great was the king at the time of Jesus’ birth (Mat. 2:1). His son, Herod Antipas, beheaded John the Baptist (Mark 6:14-29). His grandson, Herod Agrippa I, persecuted the church and put the apostle James to death (Acts 12:1-2). King Agrippa, son of Herod Agrippa I, heard Paul plead his case (Acts 26).

Herodians: A group of powerful Jews who supported the royal Herod family. They joined with the Pharisees to question Jesus about his political loyalty (Mark 12:13).

Hezekiah: The name of four persons in the Old Testament, one of whom was the king of Judah (715-687 B.C.; 2 Kgs. 18-20; 2 Chr. 29-32; Isa. 36-39).

Highminded: Haughty, arrogant, or proud spirit (Rom 11:20; 1 Ti 6:17; 2 Ti 3:4).

High Places: Places of worship on elevated pieces of ground or raised altars in low land such as a valley. High places were originally dedicated to idol worship (Numbers 33:52; Leviticus 26:30) especially among the Moabites (Isaiah 16:12). These shrines often included an altar and a sacred object such as a stone pillar or wooden pole in various shapes, identified with the object of worship (animals, constellations, goddesses, and fertility deities).

The Israelites, forever turning away from God, practiced Molech worship and built high places for Baal (Jeremiah 32:35). When King Josiah reformed the religion of Judah he destroyed the high places (2 Ki. 23:3).

Hireling: A person who is hired to work for pay. Jesus contrasted a hireling with a true shepherd (John 10:12).

Hin: About 1.5 gallons (Exo 30:24).

Hind: A female deer (Gen 49:21; Pro 5:19; Jer 14:5).

Hither: To or towards, up to this point (Gen 15:16; Rev 21:9).

Hitherto: Until now, before (Joh 5:17; 1 Co 3:2).

Hoar: Old, aged, or white with age (Exo 16:14; 1 Ki 2:6; Isa 46:4).

Hokhmah or Chochmah (hook-mah): Wisdom.

Holden: Held (Psa 18:35; Luk 24:16).

Holpen: Helped (Psa 86:17; Luk 1:54).

Holy: Sacred, consecrated, worthy of adoration, set apart for the worship of God. Isaiah heard the angel sing, “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of Hosts” (Isa. 6:3). Israel was “a holy people unto the Lord” (Deut. 7:6).

The holiness of God is the most difficult of all God’s attributes to explain, partly because it is one of His essential attributes that is not shared, inherently, by man. We are created in God’s image, and we can share many of His attributes, to a much lesser extent, of course—love, mercy, faithfulness, etc. But some of God’s attributes, such as omnipresence, omniscience, and omnipotence, will never be shared by created beings. Similarly, holiness is not something that we will possess as an inherent part of our nature; we only become holy in relationship to Christ. It is an imputed holiness. Only in Christ do we “become the righteousness of God” (2 Corinthians 5:21). God’s holiness is what separates Him from all other beings, what makes Him separate and distinct from everything else. God’s holiness is more than just His perfection or sinless purity; it is the essence of His “other-ness,” His transcendence. God’s holiness embodies the mystery of His awesomeness and causes us to gaze in wonder at Him as we begin to comprehend just a little of His majesty.

Holy Ghost: See Holy Spirit.

Holy of Holies: The innermost room of the temple or tabernacle in which the ark of the testimony was kept.

Holy Place: The sanctuary of Moses’ tabernacle and Solomon’s temple. Beyond the holy place and separated from it by a curtain or veil was a small room, “the most holy place” sometimes called the holy of holies, where the ark of the covenant was kept (Ex. 26:33).

Holy Spirit: (Also see Ruakh): Also called Holy Ghost. The third being of the Trinity; God’s presence and power active in the lives of people (Ps. 51:11): “The Comforter, which is the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things” (John 14:26). Referred to in the Old Testament as “Spirit of the Lord” or “Spirit of God” (Gen. 1:2; 41:38; 1 Sam. 10:10; Isa. 32:15; 61:1; Mk. 1:10; Jn. 1:32; 4:24; Eph. 4:30). “Ruakh” (roo’-akh) in Hebrew (spirit/breath/life) ??????. “Pneuma” in Greek (spirit/breath/life).

Holy Trinity: See Trinity.

Homer: 10 ephahs or baths, about 80 gallons (Lev 27:16; Isa 5:10; Eze 45:11).

Horeb, Mount: A sacred mountain (Ex. 3:1; Deut. 1:2, 6, 19; 4:10; 5:2) which may be the same mountain as Mount Sinai.

Hosanna: A Hebrew word shouted by the crowed that acclaimed Jesus when he entered Jerusalem in triumph (Mark 11:9). It is an expression of adoration, joy and praise. Hosanna also means “save now, we pray, ” as used to ask God’s blessing (Ps. 118:25; Mat 21:9; Mar 11:10; Joh 12:13).

Hosea: A prophet of Israel; The first of the 12 Minor Prophets in the Old Testament.

Hosen: Articles of clothing to cover the legs (Dan 3:21).

Host: A large number or people or angels, or a great multitude, such as an army (Ex. 14:17) or all the angels (Luke 2:13).

Hough: To disable by cutting the tendons in the hind leg (Jos 11:6).

Howbeit: As it may, or nevertheless (Jdg 4:17; Heb 3:16).

Husbandry: The management of a household (2 Ch 26:10; 1 Co 3:9).

Hypocrite: A person who pretends to be something he or she is not. Jesus warned his followers against religious insincerity (Mat. 6:5) and called the scribes and Pharisees hypocrites (Mat. 23:13).

Hyssop: An herb that smells like mint. Its leaves have healing and cleansing properties (Ps. 51:7).


Idol: A statue or image of a person or thing used as an object of worship, such as the golden calf (Ex. 32). See also graven images.

Idolatry: Worship of an idol.

Ignominy: Dishonor, disgrace, or shame (Pro 18:3).

Image: A likeness. An idol (Gen. 1:26; Ex. 20:4).

Immanuel: A Hebrew name meaning “God With Us,” used by Isaiah (Isa. 7:14; 8:8) in foretelling the birth of the Messiah.

Immutable: Unchangeable, not liable to change, or variation (Heb 6:18).

Impenitent: Not repenting of sin; not contrite (Rom 2:5).

Imperious: Domineering, overbearing, dominant, or commanding (Eze 16:30).

Implacable: Unappeasable, or irreconcilable (Rom 1:31).

Implead: To sue in a court of justice (Act 19:38).

Importunity: Pressing solicitation; urgent request; unwanted persistence (Luk 11:8).

Impotent: To be without power, helpless, weak or ineffective (Joh 5:3, Joh 5:7; Act 4:9).

Impudent: Immodest, disrespectful, or shameless (Pro 7:13; Eze 2:4, Eze 3:7).

Impute: To charge; to attribute or count (Rom 4:8).

Incarnation: The taking by God of human characteristics in the person of Jesus; God’s presence on earth.

Incense: Gums and spices burned in religious worship to produce fragrant smoke. Incense was burned on the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16:12-13), and Zacharias offered it within the temple while worshipers prayed outside (Luke 1:8-10). In his vision John saw the smoke of incense mingle with the prayers of the saints and rise before God (Rev. 8:3-4). See also frankincense.

Incontinent: Inability to contain or restrain oneself (2 Ti 3:3).

Inditing: To declare something (Psa 45:1).

Infamy: Shame, disgrace, or bad reputation (Pro 25:10; Eze 36:3).

Infidel: One who is unfaithful or unbelieving (2 Co 6:15; 1 Ti 5:8).

Infolding: To envelop, enclose, contain, or fold in (Eze 1:4).

Iniquity: Wrongdoing, injustice, sin (Ps. 15:11).

Injurious: Hurtful, insulting, abusive (1 Ti 1:13).

Inkhorn: A small portable vessel for ink (Eze 9:2, Eze 9:3, Eze 9:11).

Inquisition: Investigation, examination, or inquiry (Deu 19:18; Est 2:23; Psa 9:12).

Intercession: A plea on behalf of another; For example, Christ’s prayer for His followers (Jn. 17:6-26).

Isaac: The son of Abraham and Sarah, and half brother of Ishmael; By his wife Rebekah he was the father of Jacob and Esau (Gen. 21:1-12; 22:1-19; 24:62-67; 25:9-11, 19, 20; 26:1-28:5; 35:27-29).

Isaiah or Esaias: A prophet of Israel; The first book of the Old Testament Major Prophets.

Israel: The name given to Jacob by an angel (Gen. 32:28). The descendants of Jacob’s 12 sons were known as Israelites. In a political sense Israel was the name of the kingdom established by ten northern tribes when the two southern tribes formed the kingdom of Judah. In a religious sense, Israel was the name of the holy nation, made up of all God’s chosen people (Mat. 2:26). See also Hebrews, Jew.

Israelites: A name applied to Israel (the people); Also called “Hebrews”,” mostly by foreigners, as was the name “Jews”; The latter arose at the time when Judah, after the fall of the northern kingdom, represented the entire people.

Instant: Earnest, urgent or persistent (Luk. 23:23; Rom. 12:12; 2 Ti. 4:2).

Isaac: The son of Abraham and Sarah, and half brother of Ishmael; By his wife Rebekah he was the father of Jacob and Esau (Gen. 21:1-12; 22:1-19; 24:62-67; 25:9-11, 19, 20; 26:1-28:5; 35:27-29).

Isaiah or Esaias: A prophet of Israel; The first book of the Old Testament Major Prophets.

Israel: The name that Jacob received after his mysterious struggle at Jabbok (Gen. 32.22-30); Also the name of the whole people descended from him. After the separation into two kingdoms under Jeroboam, the name was confined to the northern kingdom of the ten tribes.

Israelites: A name applied to Israel (the people); Also called “Hebrews,” mostly by foreigners, as was the name “Jews”, The latter arose at the time when Judah, after the fall of the northern kingdom, represented the entire people.

Issachar: The ninth son of Jacob, the fifth by Leah (Gen. 30:17, 18); Ancestor of the tribe of Issachar.

Issue: A discharge or flow from the body (Gen 48:6; Luk 8:44).

Ivory: The hard, white substance of the tusks of elephants and other animals. Beautiful ivory ornaments and inlays were carved by skilled craftsmen to adorn thrones (1 Ki. 10:18), palaces (Ps. 45:8) and even beds of kings and wealthy people (Amos 6:4).


Jacob: Son of Isaac and Rebekah; Younger twin brother of Esau; Father of the people of Israel. Gained by craft the blessing meant for Esau; Married Leah and Rachel, the daughters of his uncle Laban; Received the name Israel; Finally found refuge in Egypt with his favorite son, Joseph (Gen. 25:21-34; 27-35; 37:1-3; 47:28-49:33).

James: The name of several persons in the New Testament. “The Elder,” son of Zebedee and brother of John; One of the 12 apostles; Martyred under Herod Agrippa (Mt. 4:21; 10:2; 17:1; 20:20; 26:37; Mk. 1:19, 20, 29; 3:17; 5:37; 9:2; 10:35, 41; 13:3; 14:33; Lk. 5:10; 6:14; 8:51; 9:28, 54; Acts 1:13; 12:1, 2). The son of Alphaeus, also one of the 12 apostles (Mt. 10:3; Mk. 3:18; Lk. 6:15; Acts 1:13). One of the sons of Mary; Known as “the Less” (Mt. 27:56; Mk. 15:40; 16:1; Lk. 24:10). The father of Judas (Lk. 6:16; Acts 1:13). The author of the epistle of James (Mt. 13:55;Mk. 6:3; Acts 12:17; 15:13, 21:18; 1 Cor. 15:7; Gal. 1:19; 2:9, 12; Jam. 1:1; Jude 1).

Jangling: To make a harsh sound or a noisy altercation (1 Ti. 1:6).

Jehovah ( See YHWH): The Lord; God. Used by some Bible translators for the name of the covenant God of Israel (Ex. 6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4). A Latinization of the Hebrew Yahweh, one vocalization of the Tetragrammaton  (YHWH), one of the seven proper names of the God of Israel in the Hebrew Bible.

The consensus among scholars is that the historical vocalization of the Tetragrammaton at the time of the redaction of the Torah (6th century BCE) is most likely Yahweh. The historical vocalization was lost because in Second Temple Judaism, during the 3rd to 2nd centuries BCE, the pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton came to be avoided, being substituted with Adonai (“my Lord”). The Hebrew vowel points of Adonai were added to the Tetragrammaton by the Masoretes, and the resulting form was transliterated around the 12th century as Yehowah. The derived forms Iehouah and Jehovah first appeared in the 16th century.

Jephthah: A warrior of Gilead; Sacrificed his daughter in fulfillment of a vow (Judg. 11:1-12:7).

Jeremiah or Jeremias: The name of ten persons in the Old Testament, one of them the prophet Jeremiah (c. 626-580 B.C.). His prophecies, visions, and life story are narrated in the second book of the Old Testament Major Prophets, which bears his name. The almond rod and the seething pot (Jeremiah 1:11-19); The potter’s wheel (Jeremiah 18:2-10); The good and bad figs (Jeremiah 24); Baruch records Jeremiah’s prophecies (Jeremiah 36:4-312).

Jericho: An ancient city at the South end of the Jordan Valley; The fall of he city is told in Joshua 6:1-25.

Jeroboam: The first king of northern Israel (c. 922-901 B.C.); Son of Nebat (1 Kgs. 11:26 – 14:20; 2 Kgs 17:21, 22; 2 Chr. 10:2-15; 13:1-20). King of Israel (c. 686-747 B.C.); Son and successor of Joash (2 Kgs 14:23-29).

Jerusalem: The most sacred city of both Jews and Christians; Mentioned under one name or another (Shalem; Salem; City of David; Moriah; Jebus; Zion; Ariel) in about 40 of the 66 books of the Bible. David captured the city (2 Sam. 5:6-9; 1 Chr. 11:4-8) and made it his capital; Brought the ark of the testimony to the city (2 Sam. 6:1-17). Solomon built the temple and other buildings there (1 Kgs 5-7). Captured by Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 39); Rebuilt by Ezra and Nehemiah. Several events in the life of Jesus occurred there. His presentation in the temple (Lk. 2:22-38); The cleansing of the temple (Jn. 2:13-25); The conversation with Nicodemus (Jn. 2:23; 3:1-21); And the events of the last week of His life (Mt. 21-28; Mk. 11-16; Lk. 19:28 – 24; Jn. 12:12 – 21).

Jesse: Son of Obed; Grandson of Boaz and Ruth; Father of David (1 Sam. 16:1-13; 17:12).

Jesus: The personal name given to God’s only begotten son by an angel (Mat. 1:21). It is the Greek form of Joshua, a Hebrew name meaning “Yahweh is salvation.” See also Christ, Savior.

Jew or Jews: The original name for the people we now call Jews was Hebrews. The word “Hebrew” (in Hebrew, “Ivri”) is first used in the Torah to describe Abraham (Gen. 14:13). The word is apparently derived from the name Eber, one of Abraham’s ancestors. Another tradition teaches that the word comes from the word “eyver,” which means “the other side,” referring to the fact that Abraham came from the other side of the Euphrates, or referring to the fact Abraham was separated from the other nations morally and spiritually.

Another name used for the people is Children of Israel or Israelites, which refers to the fact that the people are descendants of Jacob, who was also called Israel.

The word “Jew” (in Hebrew, “Yehudi”) is derived from the name Judah, which was the name of one of Jacob’s twelve sons. Judah was the ancestor of one of the tribes of Israel, which was named after him. Likewise, the word Judaism literally means “Judah-ism,” that is, the religion of the Yehudim. Other sources, however, say that the word “Yehudim” means “People of G-d,” because the first three letters of “Yehudah” are the same as the first three letters of God’s four-letter name.

Originally, the term Yehudi referred specifically to members of the tribe of Judah, as distinguished from the other tribes of Israel. However, after the death of King Solomon, the nation of Israel was split into two kingdoms: the kingdom of Judah and the kingdom of Israel (I Kings 12; II Chronicles 10). After that time, the word Yehudi could properly be used to describe anyone from the kingdom of Judah, which included the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Levi, as well as scattered settlements from other tribes. The most obvious biblical example of this usage is in Esther 2:5, where Mordecai is referred to as both a Yehudi and a member of the tribe of Benjamin. (Also see Mt. 27:11, 37; Mk. 15:2, 12, 26; Lk. 23:3, 38; Jn. 18:33, 39; 19:3, 19; Acts 22:3). See Israelites.

Jewry: Judaea: (Dan 5:13; Luk 23:5; Jn. 7:1).

Jezebel: A Phoenician woman, wife of Ahab, king of Israel (1 Kgs. 16:30; 31; 21:5 – 25; 2 Kgs. 9:30-37).

Job: Chief character in the Old Testament book of Job.

Joel: The name of several persons in the Old Testament , including the prophet, son of Pethuel, author of the second book of the 12 Minor Prophets.

John: The name five persons in the New Testament, among them: John the apostle: A son of Zebedee, brother of James (Mt. 4:21, 22; Mk. 1:19, 20; Lk. 5:10); Sometimes called “the beloved disciple” and “John the evangelist”; traditional author of the Fourth Gospel, the three epistles of John, and the Book of Revelation. John the Baptist: The son of Elisabeth and Zacharias (Lk. 1:5 – 25, 57 – 66); A prophet, called the forerunner of Jesus (Jn. 1:15 – 28); Baptised Jesus (Mt. 3:13-17; Mk. 1:9-11; Lk. 3:21, 22; Jn. 1:29-34); Imprisoned by Herod and beheaded (Mt. 14:3-12;Mk. 6:17-29). John Mark: See Mark.

Jonah or Jonas: The name of two persons of the Old Testament, one of whom was the prophet about whom the fifth book of the 12 Minor Prophets is written. Swallowed by a great fish (Jon. 1:17 – 2:10).

Jonathan: The name of 15 persons in the Old Testament, one of whom was the oldest son of Saul; David’s friend (1 Sam. 13:2; 14:1-45; 19:1-7; 20).

Joppa or Japho: The ancient seaport for Jerusalem (Josh 19:46; 2 Chr. 2:16; Jon 1:3; Acts 9:36-43).

Jordan: The chief river of Palestine, flowing from the slopes of Mount Hermon through Lake Huleh and the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. The waters were miraculously stopped for the Israelites to pass (Josh. 3:14 – 4:24). Jesus was baptised there (Mt. 3:13; Mk. 1:9).

Joseph or Joses: The name of 14 persons in the Bible, among them: The son of Jacob and Rachel (Gen. 30:22-24); His coat of many colours (Gen. 37:3); Sold into Egypt by his brothers (Gen. 37:18-36); Imprisoned on false accusations (Gen. 39:7-23); Interpreted Pharaoh’s dreams, thus gaining favour (Gen. 41:1-36); As administrator of Egypt (Gen. 41:37 – 50:26); His brothers come to him for food (Gen. 42 – 45). The husband of Mary mother of Jesus; Resident of Nazareth ; Descended from David (Mt. 1:16-25; Lk. 2:4-7; Jn. 1:45). Joseph of Arimathea: A member of Sanhedrin; Buried the body of Jesus on his own property (Mt. 27:56-60; Mk. 15:43-46; Lk. 23:50-53; Jn. 19:38-42).

Joshua or Jeshua: The name of several persons in the Old Testament, the most significant being Joshua son of Nun, the central figure of the Book of Joshua. The book tells the story of Moses’ successor as leader of the Israelites, the conquest of Canaan, and the division of the country among the 12 tribes. His miraculous crossing of the Jordan (Josh. 3:14 – 4:24); Conquest of Jericho (Josh. 6:1-21).

Jot: A little bit or the very least part of something (Mat 5:18).

Judah: The fourth son of Jacob, by Leah (Gen. 29:31, 35); Ancestor of the tribe of Judah.

Judaism: The Jewish people are best described as an extended family. There is a certain amount of truth in the claims that Judaism is a religion, a race, or an ethnic group, none of these descriptions is entirely adequate to describe what connects Jews to other Jews. And yet, almost all Jews feel a sense of connectedness to each other that many find hard to explain, define, or even understand. Traditionally, this interconnectedness was understood as “nationhood” or “peoplehood,” but those terms have become so distorted over time that they are no longer accurate (click here for more detailed information). Conformity to the traditional ceremonies and rites of the Jewish people; The cultural, religious, and social practices and beliefs of the Jews.

Judas: The name of six persons in the New Testament, including: A brother of Jesus (Mt. 13:55; Mk. 6:3). See The General Epistle of Jude. Judas Iscariot: One of the 12 apostles; the betrayer of Jesus (Mt. 26:20-25, 47-50; Mk. 14:18-20, 43-46; Lk. 22:47, 48; Jn. 13:21-26). The brother of James; One of the 12 apostles (Lk. 6:16; Jn. 14:22,Acts 1:13). See Thaddeus. Judas Barsabas: A Jewish Christian (Acts 15:22, 27, 32).

Jude, The General Epistle Of: This New Testament letter designates its author as a “servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James.” See Judas.

Judea: An area of South West Palestine; Formerly called Judah.

Judge: A ruler over the people of Israel in their early days, before God allowed Israel to have its first king. Stories of the judges are recorded in the book of Judges.


Ketuvim: Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh, after Torah and Nevi’im. In English translations of the Hebrew Bible, this section is usually entitled “Writings”. The Ketuvim is composed of Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Ruth, Chronicles, etc.

Kerchiefs: A cloth used to cover the heads of women; veil (Eze 13:18, Eze 13:21).

Kernels: The fruit seed, the inner part of a seed, or kernel of corn (Num 6:4).

Khata: Hebrew word for sin, moral failure, to fail.

Kin: Also kindred. Relatives, or members of person’s family (Mark 6:4).

Kingdom Of Heaven or Kingdom Of God: The spiritual realm of God, also called the kingdom of God. Many of Jesus’ parables are about the kingdom of heaven, such as Mat. 13:31, 33, 44-45, 47; Col 1:13; 2 Pet. 1:11; 1 Chr. 29:11;Ps. 45:6; Mat. 6:10; Lk. 11:2; Mk. 1:15; Mat. 6:33; Jn. 3:3; 1 Cor. 6:10; Gal. 5:21).

Kine: Cows (Gen 32:15; Amo 4:1).

Kippah: See Yarmulke.

Kislev: The ninth month of the Jewish year, occurring in November/December.

Knop: Knob; anything that protrudes (Exo 25:33, Exo 37:19).

Know: A sexual relationship (Gen 19:5; 1 Ki 1:4; Mat 1:25).

Kosher (KOH-sher): Fit, proper or correct. Describes food that is permissible to eat under Jewish dietary laws. Can also describe any other ritual object that is fit for use according to Jewish law.


Lade: To load; burden (Gen 45:17; 1 Ki 12:11; Luk 11:46).

Lag B’Omer: A Jewish holiday; The 33rd day of the Counting of the Omer. A minor holiday on which the mourning restrictions of the Omer period are lifted.

Lamb Of God: A name given to Jesus by John the Baptist (John 1:29, 36). In the book of Revelation, the Lamb is a symbol of Christ.

Lamentation: An expression of sorrow. The book of Lamentations grieves over the destruction of Jerusalem by its Babylonian enemies.

Lance: Spear (Jer 50:42).

Lancets: A small spear, javelin, dart (1 Ki 18:28).

Lapwing: A bird (a plover). (Lev 11:19; Deu 14:18).

Lasciviousness: To be lustful, licentious, lewd (Mar 7:22; 2 Co 12:21; Gal 5:19).

Last Supper: The last meal eaten by Jesus Christ with His apostles, on the night before His crucifixion.

Latchet: Thong to fasten a sandal; Llace (Mar 1:7; Luk. 3:16; Joh 1:27).

Laud: To extol, praise, worship, or acclaim (Rom 15:11).

Laver: A basin, bowl, or other vessel used for washing (Exo 30:18; 2 Ki 16:17).

Law: The commandments or the “will of God” as given to Moses and recorded in the first five books of the Bible. The Ten Commandments (Exodus 20) form the core of the law, but many other specific rules appear in the Pentateuch (the books of Genesis through Deuteronomy) (Ps. 19:7; Mt. 5:17; Jn. 1:17).

Lazarus: The beggar in a parable told by Jesus (Lk. 16:19-31); A friend of Jesus; Brother of Martha and Mary (Jn. 11:1-44; 12:1-11).

Leah: Elder daughter of Laban; Jacob’s first wife to whom where born six of his sons (Gen. 29:16 – 30:21)

Leasing: Lying, falsehood, or deceit (Psa 4:2; Psa 5:6).

Leaven: Also called yeast. A substance added to dough too make it rise. The Old Testament Israelites were instructed to observe a feast of unleavened bread (Ex. 12:17-20; Gal 5:9), in memory of the exodus from Egypt. This was because, just prior to the exodus, the Israelites baked bread without Yeast, so that they would be ready to leave Egypt at a moment’s notice, without waiting for their dough to rise. Jesus told a story of a woman who used leaven in making bread (Luke 13:21).

Lees: The deposits or sediment from a liquid; dregs (Isa 25:6; Jer 48:11; Zep 1:12).

Legion: Three to five thousand (Mat 26:53).

Leprosy: A common disease in Bible times. Miriam (Num. 12:10) and Namaan (2 Ki. 5:3) suffered from leprosy. Jesus healed many lepers (Luke 17:12-14). The word leprosy covered a number of illnesses besides the disease known as leprosy today.

Let: To hinder, prevent, or obstruct (Isa 43:13; Rom 1:13; 2 Th 2:7).

Lev or Levav: Hebrew for heart.

Leviathan: Aquatic animal; river or sea creature (Job 41:1; Psa 104:26).

Levites or Levi: Members of the tribe descended from Levi. Levites helped the priests care for the tabernacle and later the temple; Ancestor of the tribe of Levites, who where charged with the care of the tabernacle and the temple. The third son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. 29:31, 34).

Leviticus: The third book in the Old Testament; It deals mainly with the priests and their duties.

Libertines: Freed slaves (Act 6:9).

Licence: To give permission or authorization (Act 21:40, Act 25:16).

Lieutenants: Provincial rulers (Ezr 8:36; Est 3:12).

Life: The union of body and soul. Jesus Christ is called the “Prince of Life” (Acts 3:15; Gen. 2:9; Jn. 11:25).

Lign Aloes: An aromatic wood (Num 24:6).

Liking: Ones condition, whether good or bad (Job 39:4; Dan 1:10).

Lilies Of The Field: Refers not just to lilies, but to many different kinds of flowers, including such plants as anemone, daisy, cyclamen, iris, lily and tulip (Mat. 6:28).

Listed: Meaning pleases, desires (Mat 17:12; Mar 9:13; Joh 3:8).

Litters: A portable couch or bed (Isa 66:20).

Lively: Living or to have life (Act 7:38; 1 Pe 1:3, 1 Pe 2:5).

Locusts: Long-winged insects similar to grasshoppers that travel in swarms and devour crops. A plague of locusts afflicted Egypt (Ex. 10:14-15).

Lord: In most Bible translations, when written in capital letters (LORD), it stands for Yahweh, the personal name for God (Ex. 3:15). When written in upper and lower case (Lord), it means “master” or “ruler”. Jesus was addressed as “Lord” (Luke 13:23; Deut. 4:35; 1 Kgs. 18:39; Deut. 6:4; Ps. 97:5; Mt. 7:21; Mt. 11:25; Mk. 2:28; Jn. 20:28; Acts 2:36; 1 Cor. 2:8; Rev. 17:14).See also master.

Lord’s Day: The Sabbath; Saturday; The Day of Rest (Genesis 2:2-3; Exodus 20:8-11; Luke 23:52-54; Luke 23: 55, 56;Luke 24:1, 2; Genesis 2:2-3; Exodus 20:8-11; Mark 16:1,2; Mark 16:9; John 20:18-20; Deuteronomy 4:2; Proverbs 30:5, 6; John 15:10; Luke 4:16; Matthew 12:1; Matthew 12:9-13; Matthew 24:19-21; Acts 17:2; Acts 13:42, 44;Revelation 1:10).

Lord’s Prayer: The prayer Jesus taught his disciples (Mat. 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4).

Lord’s Supper: The “meal”, consisting of bread and wine, still eaten by Christians in memory of Jesus’ last supper with his disciples before his death (1 Cor. 11:20). The Lord’s Supper, also called “Holy Communion”, “Eucharist” or “breaking of bread” (Acts 2:42), is the central rite or sacrament of the Christian church.

Lordly: To be magnificent, noble, or grand (Jdg 5:25).

Lot: The nephew of Abraham who came with him to Canaan (Gen. 11:27 – 13:12). Saved from Sodom’s destruction (Gen. 19:1-38). His wife was turned into a pillar of salt (Gen. 19:26).

Love: A deep affection; Devotion (Prov. 10:12; Jn. 15:13; 1 Tim. 6:10; 1 Jn. 4:8; Lev. 19:18; Mt. 22:39; Jam. 2:8;Deut. 6:5; Mt. 22:37; Mt. 5:44; Lk. 6:27; Jn. 3:16).

Lowring: Gloomy, dark, threatening, or menacing (Mat 16:3).

Lucre: Dishonorable or unlawful gain or advantage (1 Sa 8:3; 1 Ti 3:3; Tit 1:7).

Luke or Lucas: The evangelist; A companion of Paul; A physician; Author of the New Testament book of Luke andActs (Col. 4:14; 2 Tim. 4:11; Philem 24).

Lunatick: One who is insane (Mat 4:24, Mat 17:15).

Lusty: Vigorous, strong, lively or robust (Jdg 3:29).


Magi: The wise men who came to worship the infant Jesus (Mt. 2:1-12); because they offered three gifts, it is often assumed that there were three Magi.

Magnifical: Renowned, glorious, eminent, stately (1 Ch 22:5).

Magnify: To praise highly (Ps. 34:3; Luke 1:46).

Mail: Body armor of overlapping plates (1 Sa 17:5, 1 Sa 17:38).

Malachi: An OT prophet, author of the last book of the OT, one of the 12 Minor Phophets.

Malefactor: A criminal, felon, or one who does evil (Joh 18:30; Luk 23:32, Luk 23:39).

Malignity: Hatred, wickedness, or malice (Rom 1:29).

Mallows: An inedible plant (Job 30:4).

Mammon: Wealth, riches, or money (Mat 6:24; Luk 16:9).

Mandrakes: Plant used as a love charm (Gen 30:14; Son 7:13).

Manger: An open box or trough made of wood or stone in which food for cattle and horses is placed. The infant Jesus was laid in a manger (Luke 2:7).

Manner: Food supplied from heaven to the Israelites while they traveled in the wilderness. A piece of manna was described as a “small round thing, as small as the hoar frost on the ground” (Ex. 14:14) and as being “like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey” (Ex. 16:31). Moses called it “bread which the Lord hath given you to eat” (Ex. 16:15).

Mantle: A loose, sleeveless cloak. Elijah’s mantle fell from him as was carried into heaven (2 Ki. 2:8, 13-14).

Maranatha: “Our Lord cometh.” (1 Co 16:22).

Marishes: Marshes, swamps or other wetlands (Eze 47:11).

Mark or John Mark: Son of Mary of Jerusalem; Companion of Paul and other early Christian missionaries; The author the Second Gospel (Acts 12:12, 25; 15:37).

Marriage: The union of one man and one woman. Explained by Jesus (Mk. 10:6-9; Mt. 22:30; Heb. 13:4).

Mary: The name of seven persons in the New Testament, among them: The mother of Jesus (Mt. 1:16, 18-25; Lk. 2:5-20); Mary Magdalene: A Galilean follower of Jesus (Mt. 27:55, 56, 61; 28:1; Mk. 15:40, 47; 16:1; Lk. 8:2; 24:10;Jn. 19:25; 20:1, 18); The sister of Martha and Lazarus (Lk. 10:38-42; Jn. 11:1-45; 12:1-8); The mother of James (Mt. 27:55, 56, 61; 28:1-10; Mk. 15:40, 41, 47; 16:1-8; Lk. 24:1-11); The mother of John Mark (Acts 12:12).

Master: A person in authority over others, such as the head of a house, a king, the owner of slaves or a teacher. Jesus’ disciples usually addressed him as a Master, meaning “Rabbi,” which was a title showing respect (Mark 9:5). See also rabbi.

Matrix: The womb or the point of origin (Exo 13:12; Num 3:12).

Mattaniah: See Zedekiah.

Maul: Hammer, mallet (Pro 25:18).

Maw: Stomach, the fourth stomach of a ruminant (Deu 18:3).

Mean: Common, undistinguished, inferior, or of low degree (Pro 22:29; Isa 2:9; Act 21:39).

Meat: Food of any kind (Gen 1:29, Gen 1:30; Joh 4:34).

Meet: Proper, fitting, suitable, or becoming (Gen 2:18; 2 Pe 1:13).

Menorah (m’-NAW-ruh; me-NOH-ruh): A candelabrum. Usually refers to the nine-branched candelabrum used to hold the Chanukkah candles. Can also refer to the seven-branched candelabrum used in the Temple.

Me’od (ma-ode): Hebrew word meaning ‘very’ or to emphasize another word; Used for ‘strength’ in the sh’mah.

Mercy: Grace, forgiveness, compassion or loving-kindness. Throughout the Bible mercy is the quality of God that accompanies, or offsets, his justice (Ps. 51:1-4).

Mercy Seat: The golden lid or cover of the ark of the covenant. The mercy seat was God’s throne (Ex. 25:17-22). See also cherub.

Meshach: The Babylonian name of one Daniel’s friends (Dan. 1:7; 3:12).

Mess: A portion, share, ration, or allotment of food (Gen 43:34; 2 Sa 11:8).

Messiah or Messias: The New Testament. The long awaited Savior and Deliverer of the Hebrews (John 1:41). Messiah is a Hebrew word meaning “anointed one.” Its Greek translation is Christ. The one sent by God to save others. Messias the Greek form of Messiah. See also anoint.

Mete: To allot, measure, or apportion (Exo 16:18; Psa 60:6; Mat 7:2).

Meteyard: A measuring rod (Lev 19:35).

Methuselah: Noah’s grandfather ; Lived for 969 years, the oldest person mentioned in the Bible (Gen. 5:27).

Micah: A Judean prophet, contemporary of Isaiah, whose prophecies appear in the Old Testament book of Micah, the sixth of the 12 Minor Prophets.

Mikra or Miqra: A Hebrew word derived from Kärä, meaning “that which is read”, and refers to the Hebrew Bible, or Tanakh.

Milch: An animal which gives milk (Gen 32:15; 1 Sa 6:7, 1 Sa 6:10).

Mincing: With little steps (Isa 3:16).

Minish: To make less in size, degree, power, or influence (Exo 5:19; Psa 107:39).

Ministry: God’s service (Acts 6:4; 2 Cor. 5:18).

Miracle: A wonderful event that cannot be explained by the known laws of nature (John 3:2). Many miracles were performed in both the Old and New Testaments. See also sign.

Mishnah: See Talmud.

Mishpat (mish-pat): Justice (restorative justice).

Mite: Extremely small piece of money (Luk 12:59; Mar 12:42; Luk 21:2).

Mitre: A cap, turban, headdress; ceremonial headwear (Exo 28:4; Zec 3:5).

Mitzvah (Mits-vuh): Any of the 613 commandments that Jews are obligated to observe. It can also refer to any Jewish religious obligation, or more generally to any good deed.

Judaism teaches that G-d gave the Jews 613 commandments, not merely ten. The biblical passage known to most people as the “Ten Commandments” is known to Jews as the Aseret ha-Dibrot, the Ten Declarations, and is considered to be ten categories of commandments rather than ten individual commandments. In Judaism, the 613 commandments are binding on Jews but not on non-Jews.

Mizrachi Jews (miz-RAHKH-khee) or Mizrachim (miz-rahkh-KHEEM): Jews from Northern Africa and the Middle East, and their descendants. Approximately half of the Jews of Israel are Mizrachi. See Ashkenazic, Mizrachi & Sephardic Jews.

Mollified: To be softened, soothed, appeased, or pacified (Isa 1:6).

Money-Changers: People who exchanged coins of various countries for the half-shekels used to pay the temple tax in Jerusalem. Jesus denounced these men for their dishonesty (Mark 11:15, 17).

Mordecai: The Jewish hero of the Old Testament book of Esther.

Morrow: The next day, the next morning (Gen 19:34; Jam 4:14).

Mortify: To kill, destroy (Rom 8:13; Col 3:5).

Moses: The great deliverer and lawgiver of Israel; Born during the oppression of the Israelites in Egypt (Ex. 1:22 – 2:2); Brought up on Pharaoh’s house (Ex. 2:5-10); Fled to Midian where he lived 40 years (Ex. 2:15-25); Called by God from the burning bush (Ex. 3:2-5) to deliver the Israelites; After performing ten miracles of plagues (Ex. 7:14 – 12:30), he got Pharaoh’s consent to take the Israelites from Egypt; Led them 40 years through the wilderness; Received the Ten Commandments from God (Ex. 20). The Old Testament books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers andDeuteronomy detail his life and deeds.

Mote: A speck of dirt or dust (Mat 7:3, Mat 7:4, Luk 6:42).

Mount of Olives: A mountain East of Jerusalem (2 Sam. 15:30; Zech. 14:4). Closely associated with the last days in the life of Jesus (in the four Gospels and Acts 1:12).

Mount Sinai: The sacred mountain where God made the covenant with Israel (Ex. 19 – 24), near the South end of the Sinai Peninsula. May be the same place as Mount Horeb.

Muffler: An ornament worn by women (Isa 3:19).

Multitude: A great number of people, or a crowd. The four Gospels frequently mention the multitudes that followed Jesus (Mark 3:7).

Munition: A fortification, defensive structure (Isa 29:7; Nah 2:1).

Murmur: To complain in a low, muttered tone. The Israelites murmured against the Lord (Num 14, 27). The scribes and Pharisees murmured against Jesus (Luke 15:2).

Murrain: A plague effecting domestic animals (Exo 9:3).

Mustard: A plant that grows rapidly to a height of 12 to 15 feet, even though its seeds are very small (Mark 4:31-32).

Myrrh: A fragrant gum from a tree growing in Africa and Arabia. Holy anointing oil was prepared with myrrh (Ex. 30:23). Myrrh was among the gifts offered to the infant Jesus (Mat. 2:11). Wine mixed with myrrh relieved pain (Mark 15:23). See also anoint.


Nahum: A prophet, the prophecies of whom are given in the Old Testament book of Nahum, the seventh of the 12 Minor Prophets.

Naphtali: The sixth son of Jacob, the second born of Bilhah (Gen. 30:7, 8); Ancestor of one of the 12 tribes of Israel.

Napkin: A kerchief, neckerchief, handkerchief (Luk 19:20; Joh 11:44, Joh 20:7).

Nathan: The name of six persons in the Old Testament, one of whom was a prophet contemporary of King of David (2 Sam. 7:1-17; 12:1-15, 25; 1 Kgs. 1:5-48).

Nativity: Ones birth with reference to national identity (Gen 11:28; Rth 2:11; Jer 46:16).

Naught or Nought: Worthless or nothing (2 Ki 2:19; Pro 20:14).

Naves: The hub of wheels (1 Ki 7:33).

Nay: Denial (Gen 18:15; Jam 5:12).

Nazareth: The town in Lower Galilee where Jesus was brought up (Lk.2:39, 51).

Nebuchadnezzar or Nebuchadrezzar: King of Babylonia (605-562 B.C.).

Necromancer: One who attempts to foretell events by seeking the dead (Deu 18:11).

Nehemiah: The name of three persons in the Old Testament, one of whom was the rebuilder of Jerusalem after the Babylonian exile. The Book of Nehemiah tells his story.

Neighbor: Or neighbour. A person who lives near another, or anyone who cross paths with someone else. Moses declared God’s words in Leviticus: “Thou shalt love they neighbour as thyself” (Lev. 19:18). In the parable of the Good Samaritan Jesus answered the lawyer’s question, “Who is my neighbour?” (Luke 10:29).

Neesings: Sneezing (Job 41:18).

Nephesh: Soul, You; Your throat. Greek translation of nephesh is “psyche” (soo-kay)

Nephew: A grandson or descendant (Job 18:19; Isa 14:22).

Neshama: A Hebrew word which can mean “soul” or “spirit”. It may refer to: The Jewish notion of the soul. Neshama Carlebach.

Nether: Lower; beneath (Exo 19:17; Eze 32:24).

Nevi’im: The Prophets section of the Hebrew Bible. It is the second main division of the Tanakh (Joshua, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, etc). It presents Israel’s history as a nation on its land.

Nigh: Near, proximity in place, time, or position (Gen 47:29; Jam 5:8).

Nineveh: One of the oldest and greatest cities of Mesopotamia; Capital of Assyria; Destroyed 612 B.C. (Gen. 10:11, 12; 2 Kgs. 19:36; Isa. 37:37; Jon. 1:2; 4:11; Nah. 1:1, 2:8; 3:7).

Nitre: Carbonate of soda, a cleansing agent (Pro 25:20; Jer 2:22).

Noah or Noe: The ninth descendant of Adam; The survivor, with his family, of the Flood (Gen. 6-9).

Noised: To make a noise, spread a rumor, or report an event (Jos 6:27; Mar 2:1; Luk 1:65).

Noisome: To be annoying or hurtful (Psa 91:3; Eze 14:15; Rev.16:2).


Obadiah: The name of 11 persons in the Old Testament, none of whom can be assumed to be the author of the Book of Obadiah, the shortest Old Testament book and fourth of the 12 Minor Prophets.Obeisance: An expression of respect or submission (Gen 37:7; Ex.18:7; 2 Ch 24:17).Oblation: A sacrifice or offering usually made to a god (Lev 2:4; Isa 44:20).Occupy: To trade or do business (Luk 19:13).

Occurrent: Happening, taking place (1 Ki 5:4).

Odious: Offensive, disgusting, or repugnant (1 Ch 19:6; Pro 30:23).

Offend: Cause to stumble or sin (Mat 18:6, Mat 18:8, Mat 18:9).

Offering: A gift to God usually presented in the temple. Animals sacrificed on an altar were among the many offerings mentioned in the Old Testament. Abraham was prepared to offer his son (Gen. 22:7-8). The prophets declared that obedience to God was more pleasing to him than offerings (1 Sam. 15:22; Amos 5:21-24). See also burnt offering, sacrifice.

Oft: Often; frequently (2 Ki 4:8; Job 21:17; Heb 6:7).

Oil: In the Bible, usually refers to olive oil. It was eaten (1 Ki. 17:12-16), burned for light (Lev. 24:2; Mat. 25:3-4) and used for anointing kings (1 Sam. 10:1) and guests (Luke 7:46).

Olive: A plentiful and very valuable tree yielding fruit; also refers to the fruit of the olive tree. Olives were important as food, and so was the oil pressed from them. Groves of olive trees gave their name to the mount of Olives outside Jerusalem (Mark 14:26; 2 Sam. 15:30; Zech. 14:4; Acts 1:12).

Olives, Mount of: See Mount of Olives.

Omega: The last letter of the Greek alphabet. See also alpha.

Omer: One tenth of an ephah, about 6:5 pints (Exo 16:16.36).

Omnipotent: All-powerful; all-mighty (Rev 19:6).

Omnipresent: At all places at once. (Psalms 139:7)

Omniscient: All knowing. (1 Corinthians 2:10)

Oracle: Someone regarded as infallible; a place (2 Sa 16:23; 1 Ki 7:49; Psa 28:2).

Oration: A prayer, speech or discourse (Act 12:21).

Ordain or Ordained: Appointed. Peter refers to Jesus as “the which was ordained of God to be Judge of quick and dead” (Acts 10:42). To establish in a particular office or order (1 Ch 9:22; 1 Co 7:17; Acts 14:23; Tit. 1:5; 1 Chr. 17:9).

Ossifrage: A vulture (Lev 11:13; Deu 14:12).

Ouches: Sockets or precious settings (Exo 28:11).

Outgoings: Limits; boundaries (Jos 17:9; Psa 65:8).

Outlandish: A foreigner, or one who is strange or bizarre (Neh 13:26).

Ox: A heavy, slow-moving animal valued for farm work since the time of Abraham (Gen. 12:16). Oxen were used for plowing (Job 1:14) and threshing (Deut. 25:4). They were also offered as sacrifices (1 Ki. 8:63). An ox is usually depicted at Jesus’ manger in fulfillment of Isaiah’s prophecy (Isa. 1:3). See also yoke.


Painfulness: Toil, labour (2 Co 11:27).Palestine: The Greek and Roman names for Canaan.Palm: A tree with a crown of fan-shaped leaves. Deborah sat under a palm tree to pronounce judgment (Judg. 4:45). Palm branches symbolize victory (John 12:13).Palm Sunday: The Sunday before Easter. Commemorates the triumphal entry of Jesus into Jerusalem (Jn. 12:12, 13).

Palsy: Paralysis (Mat 4:24; Act 9:33).

Pangs: Sharp pains (Isa 13:8; Mic 4:9).

Paps: Nipples, breasts (Eze 23:21; Luk 11:27, Rev 1:13).

Parable: A brief story with a spiritual meaning. Jesus taught many things in parables, 39 or 40 of which are recorded in the Gospels. Two of his best-known parables are the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:25-37) and the Lost (or Prodigal) Son (Luke 15:11-32). Nathan’s story of the little ewe lamb is an Old Testament parable (2 Sam. 12:1-7).

Paramours: A mistress, concubine, or illicit lover (Eze 23:20).

Parousia: A Greek word adopted as the technical term for the coming of Christ at the end of history; The Second Coming. The English word is “coming” (Mt. 24:3; 1 Cor. 15:23; 1 Thess 2:19). Descriptions of the Parousia (Mt. 24:4-44; 25:31-46; Mk. 13:5-37; Lk. 21:8-36).

Paschal: Relating to Passover or to Easter.

Passover: One of the most important Jewish festivals, celebrated each spring in memory of the the Israelite’s deliverance from Egypt. As a boy Jesus attended the Passover in Jerusalem with his parents (Luke 2:41). His death occurred at the time of the Passover celebration (Mark 14:12).

Pastoral Epistles: The epistles to Timothy and Titus are so called because they deal chiefly with directions about the work of the pastor of the church.

Pasture: Grassy land where cattle and sheep graze (Ps. 23:2).

Pate: The crown of the head (Psa 7:16).

Patriarch: The father or founder of a family. The patriarchs of the Israelites were Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Jacob’s 12 sons (Acts 7:8).

Patrimony: An inheritance from one’s father (Deu. 18:8).

Paul: As Saul, the son of Hebrew parents, he persecuted the followers of Jesus (Acts 8:3; Gal. 1:13). Miraculously converted (Acts 9:1) and name changed to Paul (Acts 13:9), he became the leading missionary of early Christianity. His life is detailed in the New Testament book of Acts. He founded many churches in Asia Minor and Greece and carried on extensive correspondence with them.

Pentateuch: The first five books of the Old Testament.

Peculiar: Singular, particular; belonging exclusively to a person (Exo 19:5; Tit 2:14; 1 Pe 2:9).

Pentecost: A Jewish harvest festival celebrated seven weeks (fiftieth day) after the Passover. Also called Feast of Weeks (Lev. 23:15, 16). At Pentecost the apostles received the Holy Spirit (Acts 2:1; 1 Co 16:8).

Penury: To be destitute or in poverty (Pro 14:23; Luk 21:4).

Peradventure: Perhaps; possibly (1 Ki 18:27; Rom 5:7).

Perdition: Damnation, destruction, or loss (Joh 17:12; Rev 17:11).

Perish: To die; To be destroyed (Ps. 1:6; Jn. 3:15, 16)

Pernicious: Destructive, hurtful, or wicked (2 Pe 2:2).

Persecute: To act in a cruel and hostile manner toward another person. Before his conversation Paul persecuted the Christians (Gal. 1:13). The prophets (Mat. 5:12), Jesus (John 15:20) and the first Christians (Acts 8:1) all experienced persecution. Jesus taught how men should behave toward persecutors (Mat. 5:44).

Pesach: A Jewish holiday; Pesach, known in English as Passover, is one of the most commonly observed Jewish holidays, even by otherwise non-observant Jews. Pesach begins on the 15th day of the Jewish month of Nissan. It is the first of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Shavu’ot and Sukkot). Agriculturally, it represents the beginning of the harvest season in Israel, but little attention is paid to this aspect of the holiday. The primary observances of Pesach are related to the Exodus from Egypt after generations of slavery. This story is told in Exodus, Ch. 1-15. Many of the Pesach observances are instituted in Chs. 12-15.

The name “Pesach” (PAY-sahch, with a “ch” as in the Scottish “loch”) comes from the Hebrew root Pei-Samekh-Cheit Pei-Samekh-Cheit (in Hebrew), meaning to pass through, to pass over, to exempt or to spare. It refers to the fact thatG-d “passed over” the houses of the Jews when he was slaying the firstborn of Egypt. In English, the holiday is known as Passover. “Pesach” is also the name of the sacrificial offering (a lamb) that was made in the Temple on this holiday. The holiday is also referred to as Chag he-Aviv Chag he-Aviv (in Hebrew), (the Spring Festival), Chag ha-Matzot Chag ha-Matzot (in Hebrew), (the Festival of Matzahs), and Z’man Cheiruteinu Z'man Cheiruteinu (in Hebrew), (the Time of Our Freedom) (again, all with those Scottish “ch”s).

Pestilence: A plague or contagious disease that spreads rapidly. In ancient times pestilences often followed famines and wars (Jer. 21:9).

Peter or Simon Peter: A fisherman on the Sea of Galilee who was called with is brother Andrew by Jesus (Mt. 4:18-20; Mk. 1:16-18; Lk. 5:1-11; Jn. 1:35-41). He became the first of the 12 apostles (Mt. 10:2), and sometimes spoke for all the disciples. Jesus changed his name from Simon to Peter (Mt. 16:18; Mk. 3:16; Lk. 6:14; Jn. 1:42). His mother-in-law healed by Jesus (Mt. 8:14, 15; Mk. 1:30, 31; Lk. 4:38, 39); His confession that Jesus is the Christ (Mt. 16:16; Mk. 8:29; Lk. 9:20); His denial of Jesus (Mt. 26:69-75; Mk. 14:66-72; Lk. 22:54-62). The traditional author of two New Testament epistles.

Pharaoh: A title used as a name, or prefixed to a name of the king of Egypt. Joseph interprets Pharaoh’s dream (Gen. 41:1-36); The Pharaoh of Exodus (Ex. 7-14).

Pharisees: Members of a Jewish sect devoted to carrying out every rite and ceremony of the law with great strictness. Jesus condemned the Pharisees for neglecting the important things in religion (Luke 11:42-43). Pharisees believed in the resurrection of the dead.

Paul was a Pharisee (Acts 23:6), as was Nicodemus (John 3:1). The Pharisees adapted the old written law to the new conditions of their day by means of oral interpretations. The parable of the Pharisee and the publican (Lk. 18:9-14). See also Sadducees.

Phenicia or Phenice: A country West of the Lebanon range and Galilee on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (Acts 11:19; 15:3; 21:2); Its chief cities were Tyre and Sidon. Also spelled Phoenicia.

Philemon: A Christian of Colosse to whom the New Testament epistle to Philemon was written by Paul. In the letter Paul asks Philemon to pardon Onesimus, a runaway slave whom Paul has converted.

Philip: The name of four persons in the New Testamen, among them: 1) The apostle (Mt. 10:3; Mk. 3:18; Lk. 6:14;Jn. 1:43-48; 6:5, 7; 12:21, 22; 14:8, 9; Acts 1:13). 2) The evangelist (Acts 6:5; 8:5-40; 21:8).

Philippi or Philippians: A city of Macedonia where Paul founded his first Christian congregation in Europe. The New Testament epistle to the Philippians was written by Paul to the church there.

Philistines: People of Philistia, a country on the Mediterranean coast extending from Joppa to Gaza. The Philistines were enemies of the Israelites throughout Old Testament times. Goliath was a champion of the Philistines (1 Sam. 17:23-51).

Phoenicia: See Phenicia or Phenice.

Phylacteries: Also called frontlets. Small leather cases containing pieces of parchment on which were written four passages from the Old Testament (Ex. 13:1-11, 16; Deut. 6:4-9; 11:13-21). Men work phylacteries on their foreheads and on their left arm during daily morning prayers (Mat. 23:5).

Pilate or Pontius Pilate: The Roman governor of Judea (A.D. 26-36); The judge in the trial and execution of Jesus (Mt. 27:1-26; Mk. 15:1-15; Lk. 23:1-25; Jn. 18:28 – 19:16).

Pillar: An upright column (Gen. 19:26; Ex. 13:21).

Pilled: To be peeled (Gen 30:37, Gen 30:38).

Plaiting: To braid, fold together, or weave (1 Pe 3:3).

Plat: Plot of ground (1 Ki 9:26).

Platted: To be braided or weaved (Mat 27:29; Mar 15:17; Joh 19:2).

Plowshare: The pointed part of a plow that cuts a furrow in the ground. Metal swords will be beaten into plowshares when peace arrives (Isa. 2:4; Mic. 4:3).

Poll: To count individually (Num 3:47; Eze 44:20; Mic 1:16).

Polled: Cut hair (2 Sa 14:26).

Pomegranate: A delicious red fruit with many seeds. A pomegranate is about the size of an orange and has an acid flavor. Israelite spies brought back pomegranates from Canaan (Num. 13:23). The high priest’s robe had “pomegranates of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, round about the hem thereof; and bells of gold between them round about” (Ex. 28:33).

Pommels: A knob or ornamental ball (2 Ch 4:12, 2 Ch 4:13).

Port: Gate, entry (Neh 2:13).

Post: Messenger carrying letters (Job 9:25; 2 Ch 30:6).

Potentate: A sovereign, king, dictator, or supreme ruler (1 Ti 6:15).

Potsherd: Piece of broken pottery (Psa 22:15; Isa 45:9).

Pottage: A thick vegetable soup sometimes containing meat. Esau sold his birthright for a dish of pottage (Gen 25:29-30, 34; Hag 2:12).

Potter: A craftsman who makes jars and dishes of clay. Potters turn clay on a wheel to round out the shape of the pottery. A potter’s field is one from which clay has been dug. With Judas’ 30 pieces of silver the priests bought such a field as a burial place for strangers (Mat. 27:7-8).

Potters Field: A potter’s field, paupers’ grave or common grave is a place for the burial of unknown or indigent people. Potter’s field is of Biblical origin, referring to a ground where clay was dug for pottery, later bought by the high priests of Jerusalem for the burial of strangers, criminals and the poor (The money came from the 30 pieces of silver that the high priests gave Judas for betraying Jesus. Judas returned the silver to the high priests).

Pound: A weight of silver (1 Ki 10:17; Joh 19:39).

Prating: Foolish, boastful, or vain talk (Pro 10:8, Pro 10:10; 3 Jo 1:10).

Prayer: Communion with God. Words addressed to God. The Old Testament records many prayers, included those of Abraham’s servant (Gen. 24:12), Moses (Ex. 32:30-32), David (2 Sam. 7:18-29), Solomon (1 Ki. 8:23-53), Elijah (1 Ki. 18:36-37), Isaiah (Isa. 6:8), Jeremiah (Jer. 14:7-9) and Daniel (Dan. 9:3-19). The book of Psalms contains many prayers. Jesus taught his disciples the Lord’s Prayer (Mat. 6:9-13; Luke 11:2-4). Jesus himself prayed often (Mark 1:35; John 17; Luke 23:34), as did the apostles (Acts 1:14; 4:24-31).

Presbytery: Assembly of elders (1 Ti 4:14).

Presently: Immediately (Pro 12:16; Mat 26:53).

Press: Crowd of people (Mar 2:4, Mar 5:27; Luk 8:19, Luk 19:3).

Prevent: To go before, or preceed (Job 3:12; 1 Th 4:15).

Prey: Booty, spoil (Num 31:12, Num 31:26).

Pricks: Goads for driving cattle (Num 33:55; Act 9:5, Act 26:14).

Priest: A person who offered sacrifices , conducted religious services and taught the will of God. Among the famous priests of Israel were Aaron, Eli, Abiathar, Zadok, Hilkiah, Ezekiel, Ezra, Zacharias, Caiaphas and Annas.

Privily: Secretly; privately (Jdg 9:31; Mat 1:19).

Privy: To have knowledge of (Jdg 9:31; 2 Pe 2:1).

Prodigal: Wasteful. The parable of the Prodigal Son is given in Luke 15:11-32.

Profane: Common, unholy; to dishonor (Eze 42:20; Mal 2:11).

Progenitors: Ancestors or forefathers (Gen 49:26).

Prognosticators: One who predicts, forecast, or foretells (Isa 47:13).

Prophet: A person inspired by God to speak for Him. Among the great Hebrew prophets were: Elijah, Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Micah, Jeremiah and Ezekiel.

Propitiation: Expiation ; removal of guilt by atonement (Rom. 3:25; 1 Jn. 2:2; 4:10).

Proselyte: A person that converted from one religion to another, especially recently; A Gentile who converted to Judaism. (Math. 23:15; Act 2:10, Act 13:43).

Protestant Or Protestantism: Of or pertaining to any Christian church that grew out of the Reformation or that has developed since then; a member of such church. Protestantism originated in the 16th-century Reformation, and its basic doctrines, in addition to those of the ancient Christian creeds, are justification by grace alone through faith. See Reformation.

Prove: To test or try (Exo 16:4; 1 Ti 3:10).

Provender: Animal feed (Gen 24:25; Isa 30:24).

Proverb: A short saying that expresses a useful or familiar truth, such as Proverbs 15:1.

Pruninghook: A curved blade at the end of a long pole, used to cut branches (Isa. 2:4).

Psalm: The the first book of the Ketuvim (in the Old Testament. A religious song or poem used in public worship or in private devotions. The book of Psalms contains 150 psalms, many of which were originally set to music.

Psaltery: A type of harp; stringed instrument (1 Sa 10:5; Dan 3:15).

Publican: A tax collector or a man who gathered from the people the money they owed the government. Matthew was a tax collector before Jesus called him to be a disciple (Mat. 9:9-13).

Pulse: Grain, seed, or beans used as food (2 Sa 17:28; Dan 1:12, Dan 1:16).

Purim: A Jewish holiday; Purim is one of the most joyous and fun holidays on the Jewish calendar. It commemorates a time when the Jewish people living in Persia were saved from extermination.

The story of Purim is told in the Biblical book of Esther. The heroes of the story are Esther, a beautiful young Jewish woman living in Persia, and her cousin Mordecai, who raised her as if she were his daughter. Esther was taken to the house of Ahasuerus, King of Persia, to become part of his harem. King Ahasuerus loved Esther more than his other women and made Esther queen, but the king did not know that Esther was a Jew, because Mordecai told her not to reveal her identity.

The word “Purim” means “lots” and refers to the lottery that Haman used to choose the date for the massacre.

The Purim holiday is preceded by a minor fast, the Fast of Esther, which commemorates Esther’s three days of fasting in preparation for her meeting with the king.

Purloining: Stealing; theft (Tit 2:10).

Purtenance: The intestines of an animal (Exo 12:9).

Putrifying: To rot, decay; to stink (Isa 1:6).

Pygarg: An antelope with a white rump (Deu 14:5).


Quails: Small game birds that migrate in large flocks. In the wilderness God provided the Israelites daily with quails to eat (Ex. 16:13; Num. 11:31-31).Quarter: A region, locality, or section (Gen 19:4; Isa 47:15; Mar 1:45).Quaternions: A set of four things (Act 12:4).Queen of Heaven: A popular pagan goddess to whom some Israelite women burned incense, poured libations and offered cakes (Jer. 7:18; 44:17). Jeremiah denounced the cult of the queen of heaven.

Quick[en]: To have, give, or restore life (Lev 13:10; 1 Pe 4:5; Rom 8:11).

Quit: Quit; to be discharged or free (Exo 21:19; Jos 2:20), to release from an obligation (1 Sa 4:9; 1 Co 16:13).

Quiver: A case in which arrows are carried (Gen. 27:3).


Rabbi: Teacher; A title of respect for a Jewish teacher or spiritual leader. Jesus was often addressed as “Rabbi” (John 1:38).Rabboni: Means the same as rabbi, but it implies even greater respect. Mary Magdalene addressed Jesus as “Rabboni!” (John 20:16).Rachel: The younger daughter of Laban; Jacob’s second wife; Mother of Joseph and Benjamin (Gen. 29:1 – 31:35; 35:16-19).Rail: To denounce, scorn, insult (1 Sa 25:14; Mar 15:29; Luk 23:29).

Raiment: Clothing, dress, or apparel (Gen 24:53; Rev 4:4).

Rakhmah – Love (in Aramaic).

Ram: A male sheep. In place of his son Isaac, Abraham sacrificed a ram caught by its horns in the thicket (Gen. 22:13). Trumpets were made of flattened rams’ horns. See also trumpet.

Rampart: Earth raised around a fort; fortification (Lam 2:8; Nah 3:8).

Ranging: Roving, wandering (Pro 28:15).

Rank: Full grown, upright, robust (Gen 41:5, Gen 41:7). To set the battle in array (Num 2:16; 1 Ch 12:33).

Rase: Demolish; destroy (Psa 137:7).

Rasha (ra-sha): Wickedness.

Ravening: Plundering; tearing to pieces (Luk 11:39; Eze 22:25).

Ravin: To plunder, rob, or pillage (Gen 49:27; Nah 2:12).

Rear: To raise, build or erect (Lev 26:1; 2 Sa 24:18; Joh 2:20).

Rebekah: Wife of Isaac; Mother of Esau and Jacob (Gen. 24:10-67; 25:20-26, 28; 26:6-11; 27:5-17).

Reconciliation: The return to a friendly relationship after an estrangement or argument. The Jews offered sacrifices to bring about reconciliation with God. Paul and other Christians preached that Christ made reconciliation between God and man: “God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself” (2 Cor. 5:19). See also atonement.

Redeem or Redeemer: To save, rescue or deliver, often by paying a ransom. The Israelites sang to God, “Thou has with thine arm redeemed thy people” (Ps. 77:15). One who buys back, rescues (as from sin), or ransoms. Jesus is called “the Redeemer”, through His sacrificial death, although the word does not appear in the New Testament (Job 19:25; Ps. 19:14; Isa. 59:20).

Red Sea or Sea of Reeds: The body of water between Arabia and Africa; The miraculous parting of the sea (Ex. 14:21-31) enabled the Israelites to escape the Egyptians.

Redound: To rebound, exceed, overflow (2 Co 4:15).

Reformation, Christian: The religious revolution that took place in the Western church in the 16th century. Its greatest leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin. Having far-reaching political, social, and economic effects, the Reformation became the basis for the founding of Protestantism. It was aimed at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.

A Protestant is a Christian who belongs to one of the many branches of Christianity that have developed out of the Protestant Reformation started by Martin Luther in 1517. Luther’s posting of the 95 Theses “protested” against unbiblical teachings and traditions in the Roman Catholic Church, and many Europeans joined his protest. New churches were founded outside of the Catholic Church’s control. The major movements within the Protestant Reformation include the Lutheran Church and the Presbyterian Church (largely associated with John Knox). The Anabaptist or Free Church movement is considered by some to be part of Protestantism; others classify the Anabaptists as an independent group altogether.

Among today’s Protestant groups, much variety has developed in the form of denominations in both the U. S. and abroad. Some of the larger Protestant groups in the U. S. include the Southern Baptist Convention, Assemblies of God, United Methodist Church, Presbyterian Churches (multiple denominations), and many others.

The common beliefs among the early Protestant churches included the five solas. The five solas refer to faith alone, Christ alone, grace alone, Scripture alone, and God’s glory alone. These five solas emphasize the following points:

First, Protestants hold to the Holy Bible as the sole authority regarding matters of faith and practice. The Roman Catholic Church holds to the authority of the pope as well as sacred tradition. The Orthodox Church accepts sacred tradition while rejecting the authority of the pope. The view that the Bible is the only authority is expressed in the term Sola Scriptura (“Scripture alone”) that emphasizes God’s inspired words in the Bible as our perfect authority (2 Timothy 3:16–17; 2 Peter 1:20–21).

Second, Protestants hold to faith alone apart from works. The Roman Catholic Church teaches seven sacraments and often speaks of works as part of a person’s salvation. However, Ephesians 2:8–9 clearly says that salvation is by grace alone through faith alone in Christ alone: “It is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God—not by works, so that no one can boast.”

Third, Protestants hold to living for God’s glory alone. While Roman Catholicism agrees with this belief, it is often expressed in conjunction with faithful obedience to the Church and its leaders. In contrast, Protestants believe in the priesthood of every believer, as stated in 1 Peter 2:9: “You are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light.” Protestants reject the Catholic priesthood system and instead give allegiance to God alone, affirming the giftedness of every follower of Jesus Christ (Romans 12; 1 Corinthians 12:1–8).

While there is much variety among today’s Protestants, the original Protestant movement emphasized a free church that worshiped Christ and focused on the key teachings of the Bible regarding Jesus, Scripture, salvation, and God’s glory.

See Protestantism.

Refuge: A place of shelter or protection from danger. The Hebrews had six “cities of refuge” where a person who had accidentally killed another could escape from the murdered person’s avengers (Num. 35:11-15). Many of the prophets and psalmists declared that God is the sure refuge of men and nations (2 Sam. 22:3; Ps. 91:2; Jer. 16:19). See also avenger.

Rehearse: Report, declare (Exo 17:14; Act 14:27).

Reins: The seat of emotions, feelings, or affections (Job 16:13; Rev 2:23).

Remnant: A part that is left over or that survives. Isaiah and other prophets believed that God would preserve a righteous of his chosen people (Isa. 10:20-21; Zech. 8:11-13).

Rend: To tear or pull apart (Exo 39:23; Joh 19:24).

Repent or Repentance: To feel regret; To change one’s mind about; Feeling sorry for something one has done or has failed to do, and then turning from one’s wrongdoing toward God (Job 42:6; Mt. 3:2; Lk. 13:3; Acts 2:38; Acts 3:19). The prophets urged the people to turn from evil that they might know God (Ezek. 18:30-32). John the Baptist preached repentance (Mark 1:4), and Jesus came to call sinners to repentance (Luke 5:32).

Reprobate: Refused, depraved, worthless (Jer 6:30; Rom 1:28; 2 Ti 3:8).

Requite: To pay back or retaliate (Gen 50:15; 1 Ti 5:4).

Rereward: A rear guard (Num 10:25; Jos 6:9; 1 Sa 29:2).

Respite: A rest, a reprieve or postponement (Exo 8:15; 1 Sa 11:3).

Resurrection: Living again after death. Peter proclaimed Jesus’ resurrection to a multitude in Jerusalem (Mt. 28; Mk. 16; Lk. 24; Acts 2:24, 31-33; Jn. 11:5; 20; Rev. 20:5). Paul wrote the oldest surviving record of the resurrection and expressed the Christian faith in the life after death (1 Cor. 15).

Revellings: A noisy feast, any kind of disorderly or immoral festivity (Gal 5:21; 1 Pe 4:3).

Rifled: To be plundered, robbed, pillaged (Zec 14:2).

Righteous: Upright or honorable and free from wrong. Righteousness includes such qualities as kindness, unselfishness, truthfulness and justice. The prophets declared that God is righteous and that he demands righteousness of men (Ps. 1:6; 23:3; Mt. 5:6; 9:13; Rom. 5:21).

Ringstraked: Streaked, striped (Gen 30:35.40, Gen 31:8).

Riot: Wanton, or wasteful living; extravagance (Tit 1:6; 1 Pe 4:4; 2 Pe 2:13).

Rising: An abscess, tumor, or boil (Lev 13:2).

Road: A journey, hostile incursion, or raid (1 Sa 27:10).

Rod: A short, stout club used by shepherds to beat wolves away from the flock. Moses’ rod performed wonders (Ex. 4:2-5). Aaron’s rod buddled (Num. 17:1-11).

Roe: A small, graceful and swift animal of the antelope family, also called gazelle (1 Chr. 12:8).

Rome or Romans: The capital of the Roman Empire; Christianity probably came to Rome early in the apostolic age. Paul wrote the New Testament epistle to the Romans to the Christian community there.

Rosh Hashanah: A Jewish holiday; Rosh Hashanah occurs on the first and second days of Tishri. In Hebrew, Rosh Hashanah means, literally, “head of the year” or “first of the year.” Rosh Hashanah is commonly known as the Jewish New Year. This name is somewhat deceptive, because there is little similarity between Rosh Hashanah, one of the holiest days of the year, and the American midnight drinking bash and daytime football game.

There is, however, one important similarity between the Jewish New Year and the American one: Many Americans use the New Year as a time to plan a better life, making “resolutions.” Likewise, the Jewish New Year is a time to begin introspection, looking back at the mistakes of the past year and planning the changes to make in the new year. More on this concept at Days of Awe.

The name “Rosh Hashanah” is not used in the Bible to discuss this holiday. The Bible refers to the holiday as Yom Ha-Zikkaron (the day of remembrance) or Yom Teruah (the day of the sounding of the shofar). The holiday is instituted in Leviticus 23:24-25.

Ruakh or Ruach (See Holy Spirit): A Hebrew word meaning “wind”, “breath, or “spirit”. In its prophetic form as Ruach HaKodesh it is derived from the Talmud equating Divine Inspiration (Ruach haKodesh), and a Divine Voice as the word used to refer to the Spirit of God, or Holy Spirit, in the Tanakh.

The Hebrew ruach means “wind,” “breath,” or “spirit.” The corresponding Greek word is pneuma. Both words are commonly used in passages referring to the Holy Spirit. The word’s first use in the Bible appears in the second verse: “The Spirit of God [Ruach Elohim] was hovering over the waters” (Genesis 1:2). In Genesis 6:17 ruach is translated “breath of life.” Genesis 8:1 uses ruach to describe the “wind” God sent over the earth to recede the Flood waters. Altogether, the word ruach is found almost 400 times in the Old Testament.

Often, when the Old Testament talks about the “Spirit of the Lord” or the “Spirit of God,” the word for “Spirit” is Ruach. Use of ruach as “spirit” when not linked with God usually is in reference to the human spirit. This can mean the actual spirit of a human (the immaterial part of humans akin to the soul) or to one’s mood, emotional state, or general disposition. Ruach as “breath” or “wind” can be a reference to literal breath or wind or it can take on a figurative meaning such as in the idiom “a mere breath.”

God’s Ruach is the source of life. The Ruach of God is the One who gives life to all creation. We could say that God’s Ruach has created every other (non-divine) ruach that exists. All living creatures owe the breath of life to the Creative Spirit of God. Moses states this truth explicitly: “God . . . gives breath [ruach] to all living things” (Numbers 27:16). Job understood this truth as well: “As long as I have life within me, the breath [ruach] of God in my nostrils” (Job 27:3). Later, Elihu tells Job, “The Spirit of God has made me; the breath of the Almighty gives me life” (Job 33:4).

God used the phrase Ruach Yahweh in His promise that the Messiah would be empowered by the Holy Spirit: “The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him—the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of might, the Spirit of the knowledge and fear of the LORD” (Isaiah 11:2; see also Isaiah 42:1). This prophecy was fulfilled in Jesus; at His baptism in the Jordan River, John saw “the Spirit of God descending like a dove and alighting on him” (Matthew 3:16).

Rude: Unlearned, uneducated, unskilled (2 Co 11:6).

Rudiments: First principles; origin, first form (Col 2:8, Col 2:20).

Rue: An herb (Luk 11:42).

Ruth: A Moabite woman who became an ancestress of David through her second marriage, to Boaz. Her story of devotion is told in the Old Testament book of Ruth.


Sabbath: The day of rest ordained by God; A holy day of rest and worship (Ex. 20:8). The seventh day of the week, from Friday evening to Saturday evening, is the Sabbath (Genesis 2:2-3; Exodus 20:8-11; Luke 23:52-54; Luke 23: 55, 56; Luke 24:1, 2; Genesis 2:2-3; Exodus 20:8-11; Mark 16:1, 2; Mark 16:9; John 20:18-20. Sackbut: A medieval wind instrument (Dan 3:5, Dan 3:10, Dan 3:15)). Sacrifice: An offering to God. In Bible times people sacrificed animals on altars in order to praise and thank God and to ask his forgiveness. The prophets declared that sacrifices were not as pleasing to God as a person’s justice, mercy and righteousness (Amos 5:21-27). See also burnt offering, offering.Sacrilege: Stealing what is consecrated to God (Rom 2:22).

Sadducees: A priestly group claiming to be the legitimate line from Zadok, the high priest under Solomon. They accepted only the written law and rejected the oral interpretations of it which the Pharisees had developed. The Sadducees did not believe in resurrection from the dead. Jesus warned his followers against the teaching of the Sadducees (Mat. 16:12; Ex. 5:17; Mk. 12:33; Heb. 9:26).

Saints: Holy people whose lives are consecrated to God. All the Christians belonging to a church or district were called saints, as the “saints at Jerusalem” (Acts 9:13), “the saints which dwelt at Lydda” (Acts 9:32), “all the saints which are in all Achaia” (2 Cor. 1:1).

Salvation: The saving of people from danger, evil, wrongdoing and/or eternal damnation. Jesus Christ is the Savior who brought salvation to all people who are willing to accept his sacrifice in faith (Acts 4:12; Ps. 25:5; 95:1; Lk. 3:6;Phil. 1:19; Tit. 2:11; Heb. 2:10).

Samaritan: A person from Samaria, the country between Judea and Galilee. In Jesus’ time the Jews had “no dealings with the Samaritans” (John 4:9), for they disagreed about religious matters. But Jesus talked with a Samaritan woman (John 4:4-42) and on another occasion told a story about a good Samaritan (Luke 10:30-37).

The Samaritans occupied the country formerly belonging to the tribe of Ephraim and the half-tribe of Manasseh. The capital of the country was Samaria, formerly a large and splendid city. When the ten tribes were carried away into captivity to Assyria, the king of Assyria sent people from Cutha, Ava, Hamath, and Sepharvaim to inhabit Samaria (2 Kings 17:24; Ezra 4:2-11). These foreigners intermarried with the Israelite population that was still in and around Samaria. These “Samaritans” at first worshipped the idols of their own nations, but being troubled with lions, they supposed it was because they had not honored the God of that territory. A Jewish priest was therefore sent to them from Assyria to instruct them in the Jewish religion. They were instructed from the books of Moses, but still retained many of their idolatrous customs. The Samaritans embraced a religion that was a mixture of Judaism and idolatry (2 Kings 17:26-28). Because the Israelite inhabitants of Samaria had intermarried with the foreigners and adopted their idolatrous religion, Samaritans were generally considered “half-breeds” and were universally despised by the Jews.

Additional grounds for animosity between the Israelites and Samaritans were the following:

1. The Jews, after their return from Babylon, began rebuilding their temple. While Nehemiah was engaged in building the walls of Jerusalem, the Samaritans vigorously attempted to halt the undertaking (Nehemiah 6:1-14).

2. The Samaritans built a temple for themselves on “Mount Gerizim,” which the Samaritans insisted was designated by Moses as the place where the nation should worship. Sanballat, the leader of the Samaritans, established his son-in-law, Manasses, as high priest. The idolatrous religion of the Samaritans thus became perpetuated.

3. Samaria became a place of refuge for all the outlaws of Judea (Joshua 20:6-7; 21:21). The Samaritans willingly received Jewish criminals and refugees from justice. The violators of the Jewish laws, and those who had been excommunicated, found safety for themselves in Samaria, greatly increasing the hatred which existed between the two nations.

4. The Samaritans received only the five books of Moses and rejected the writings of the prophets and all the Jewish traditions.

Samson: A hero of the tribe of Dan, noted for his great strength (Judg. 13 – 16).

Samuel: The last “judge” of Israel; A prophet of the eleventh century B.C. The two Old Testament books of Samuelrecord his life and deeds and the history of Israel through the reigns of Solomon and David. The Lord calls Samuel (1 Sam. 3); Samuel anoints David (1 Sam. 16:11-13).

Sanctify: To make holy (1 Thes. 5:23).

Sanctuary: A building or place set apart for religious worship. In the Old Testament, the tabernacle (Ex. 25:8) or the temple (1 Chr. 22:19).

Sanhedrin: The term Sanhedrin is from a Greek word that means “assembly” or “council” and dates from the Hellenistic period, but the concept is one that goes back to the Bible. In the Torah, God commands Moses to “bring me seventy of Israel’s elders who are known to you as leaders and officials among the people. Have them come to the Tent of Meeting, that they may stand there with you” (Numbers 11:16). Also, in the sixteenth chapter of Deuteronomy, we read in verse 18, “You shall appoint for yourselves judges and officers in all your towns which the Lord your God is giving you, according to your tribes and they shall judge the people with righteous judgment.” The land was divided up among the tribes, and in those areas where tribes had their presence, there were towns and villages, and in every town and every village there was to be a court. If there were 120 men as heads of families, they had a local court there called a Sanhedrin. In smaller towns where there were not 120 men as heads of families, there were either three judges, if the town was very small, or seven judges who sat as a court, both judge and jury, in all legal matters.

The Great Sanhedrin was the supreme court of ancient Israel, made up of 70 men and the high priest. In the Second Temple period, the Great Sanhedrin met in the Temple in Jerusalem. The court convened every day except festivals and on the Sabbath. The Sanhedrin as a body claimed powers that lesser Jewish courts did not have. As such, they were the only ones who could try the king or extend the boundaries of the Temple and Jerusalem, and were the ones to whom all questions of law were finally put. The last binding decision of the Sanhedrin was in 358, when the Hebrew calendar was adopted. The Sanhedrin was dissolved after continued persecution by the Roman Empire. Over the centuries, there have been attempts to revive the institution, such as the Grand Sanhedrin convened by Napoleon Bonaparte.

In the New Testament, the Sanhedrin is best known for their part in the series of mock trials that resulted in the crucifixion of Jesus. The Sanhedrin began with an informal examination of Jesus before Annas, the acting high priest (John 18:12-14, 19-23), followed by a formal session before the entire Sanhedrin (Matthew 26:57-68). There the decision was made to turn Jesus over the Roman authorities to be tried and crucified.

Sarah or Sarai: The wife of Abraham ; Mother of Isaac in accord with divine promise (Gen. 17:15-21; 18:1-15).

Satan: The Devil; The adversary of God and Christ (Mt. 12:26; Mk. 1:13; 3:23; 2 Cor. 2:11; Rev. 20:7).

Satiate: To fill to excess or satisfy (Jer 31:14, Jer 46:10).

Satyr: Male goat (Isa 13:21, Isa 34:14).

Saul: Son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin; First king over Israel. The prophet Samuel anoints him to be king (1 Sam. 10:1); He disobeys the Lord (1 Sam. 15); David enters his service (1 Sam. 16:14-23); He tries to kill David (1 Sam. 19:9, 10); David spares his life (1 Sam. 26:6-24).

Save: Besides, except for, or excluding (Joh 6:22, Joh 6:46).

Savior or Saviour: A title given to Jesus Christ because he brought salvation to all people (Luke 2:11). God is also called the Savior (Isa. 43:3; 2 Sam. 22:3; Isa. 45:21; Lk. 1:47; Jn. 4:42; Eph. 5:23; Phil. 3:20; Jude 25).

Savour: Taste (Exo 5:21; Mat 5:13); think, understand (Mat 16:23; Mar 8:33).

Scall: A sore or scab (Lev 13:30, Lev 14:54).

Scant: Skimped, meager (Mic 6:10).

Scrabbled: Rake, scrape, or snatch hurriedly (1 Sa 21:13).

Scribes: Men who copied, interpreted and taught the Scriptures. Ezra was the first recorded scribe in the Bible (Neh. 8:1). Jesus condemned the scribes of his day (Mark 12:38-40).

Scrip: A small bag, satchel, or purse (1 Sa 17:40; Luk 22:36).

Scripture or Scriptures: The sacred writings inspired by God (Mk. 12:10; Romans 1:2; Jn 5:39; 2 Tim. 3:16).

Scroll: Also called a roll or scrole. A roll of parchment or papyrus on which a book was written (Jer. 36:2). See also bulrushes.

Seal: An implement for stamping an impression on soft clay or wax; also the impression made by the seal. Ancient seals wee usually made from small stones and engraved with designs or words. Documents and merchandise such as jars of oil or bags of grain were stamped with a seal, which was the equivalent of a signature. When Jezebel wrote letters in her husband’s name, she sealed them with his royal seal (1 Ki. 21:8). Seals were often worn as rings and were sometimes called signets (Ex. 39:6).

Seemly: Fitting, proper or appropriate (Pro 19:10, Pro 26:1).

Seer: A person who predicts future events. In Israel’s early days a prophet was called a seer (1 Sam. 9:9).

Seethe: To boil or cook by boiling (Exo 16:23; Zec 14:21).

Selah: A Hebrew word of uncertain meaning found in Habakkuk 3:3, 9 and 13 and in certain Psalms, such as 3, 4 and 9. The word may have indicated a pause in the musical accompaniment of the Psalm.

Selvedge: The edge of woven fabric (Exo 26:4, Exo 36:11).

Semites: The people descended from Shem, the son of Noah (Gen. 5:32), or those speaking one of the Semetic languages.

Sephardic Jews (s’-FAHR-dic) or Sephardim (seh-fahr-DEEM): Jews from Spain, Portugal, North Africa and the Middle East and their descendants, who are culturally different from Jews with origins in other parts of the world. Jews from North Africa and the Middle East are often described separately as Mizrachi Jews. See Ashkenazic, Mizrachi & Sephardic Jews.

Septuagint: The Septuagint (also known as the LXX) is a translation of the Hebrew Bible into the Greek language. The name “Septuagint” comes from the Latin word for seventy. The tradition is that 70 (or 72) Jewish scholars were the translators behind the Septuagint. The Septuagint was translated in the third and second centuries B.C. in Alexandria, Egypt. As Israel was under the authority of Greece for several centuries, the Greek language became more and more common. By the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., most people in Israel spoke Greek as their primary language. That is why the effort was made to translate the Hebrew Bible into Greek – so that those who did not understand Hebrew could have the Scriptures in a language they could understand. The Septuagint represents the first major effort at translating a significant religious text from one language into another.

It is interesting to note that many of the New Testament quotes from the Hebrew Bible are taken from the Septuagint. As faithful as the Septuagint translators strived to be in accurately rendering the Hebrew text into Greek, some translational differences arose. In comparing the New Testament quotations of the Hebrew Bible, it is clear that the Septuagint was often used. This is the result of the fact that by the late 1st century B.C., and especially the 1st century A.D. – the Septuagint had “replaced” the Hebrew Bible as the Scriptures most people used. Since most people spoke and read Greek as their primary language, and the Greek authorities strongly encouraged the use of Greek, the Septuagint became much more common than the Hebrew Old Testament. The fact that the Apostles and New Testament authors felt comfortable, under the direction of the Holy Spirit, in using the Septuagint should give us assurance that a translation of the original languages of the Bible is still the authoritative Word of God.

Sepulchre: A tomb, grave, or burial place. The Holy Sepulchre is the place where Jesus’ body was laid (Mat. 23:27; 27:59-61; Gen 23:6; Rom 3:13).

Seraphim or Seraphs – The seraphim (fiery, burning ones) are angelic beings associated with the prophet Isaiah’s vision of God in the Temple when God called him to his prophetic ministry (Isaiah 6:1-7). Isaiah 6:2-4 records, “Above him were seraphs, each with six wings: With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying. And they were calling to one another: ‘Holy, holy, holy is the Lord Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.’ At the sound of their voices the doorposts and thresholds shook and the temple was filled with smoke.” Seraphs are angels who worship God continually.

Isaiah chapter 6 is the only place in the Bible that specifically mentions the seraphim. Each seraph had six wings. They used two to fly, two to cover their feet, and two to cover their faces (Isaiah 6:2). The seraphim flew about the throne on which God was seated, singing His praises as they called special attention to God’s glory and majesty. These beings apparently also served as agents of purification for Isaiah as he began his prophetic ministry. One placed a hot coal against Isaiah’s lips with the words, “See, this has touched your lips; your guilt is taken away and your sin atoned for” (Isaiah 6:7). Similar to the other types of holy angels, the seraphim are perfectly obedient to God. Similar to the cherubim, the seraphim are particularly focused on worshipping God.

Sermon on the Mount: Teachings given by Jesus to his disciples on a mountain (Mat. 5:1-7:27; 5:3 – 7:27). This lengthy sermon contains the Beatitudes, the Golden Rule, the Lord’s Prayer and a description of the qualities of a true disciple. A similar discourse in Luke 6:17-49 is called the “Sermon on the Plain”.

Serpent: A snake (Gen. 3:1). In Biblical usage, many times synonymous with “Satan” (Mk. 16:18; 2 Cor. 11:3; Rev. 20:2).

Servile: Befitting a slave or a menial position (Lev 23:7; Num 29:35).

Servitor: A servant, slave; one who provides a service (2 Ki 4:43).

Settle: A sitting place, or a raised platform (Eze 43:14, Eze 43:17, Eze 43:20, Eze 45:19).

Severally: Separately, individually (1 Co 12:11).

Sh’mah (Shema Yisrael): The Sh’mah is the Jewish confession of faith emphasizing their monotheistic belief.

The most well-known section of the Sh’mah prayer, recited in the synagogue at every morning and evening service, and often at bedtime, is taken from Deuteronomy 6:4-9, and declared by the Messiah to be the most important commandment of all [Mark 12:29-30].

The Sh’mah: Sh’mah, Israel, YHVH Elohanu YHVH echad. Hear, O Israel, YHVH Elohanu (our El), YHVH (is) one. And you shall love YHVH Elohekka with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your might.

According to tradition, the last letter of the first word, and the last letter of the last word, are written in large script on the Torah scroll. The combined two letters spell ayd, meaning “witness.” The Sh’mah expresses the purpose of Israel’s existence: to serve as a witness to the primacy of YHVH as the one and only Master of the universe.

Shadrach: The Babylonian name of one of Daniel’s companions (Dan. 1:7; 3:12).

Shambles: Tables for displaying goods; market (1 Co 10:25).

Shamefacedness: The state or quality of being ashamed; modest (1 Ti 2:9).

Share: To shear (1 Sa 13:20).

Shavu’ot : A Jewish holiday; Shavu’ot, the Festival of Weeks, is the second of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Passover and Sukkot). Agriculturally, it commemorates the time when the first fruits were harvested and brought to the Temple, and is known as Hag ha-Bikkurim (the Festival of the First Fruits). Historically, it celebrates the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, and is also known as Hag Matan Torateinu (the Festival of the Giving of Our Torah).

The period from Passover to Shavu’ot is a time of great anticipation. In Judaism, they count each of the days from the second day of Passover to the day before Shavu’ot, 49 days or 7 full weeks, hence the name of the festival. See The Counting of the Omer. The counting reminds us of the important connection between Passover and Shavu’ot: In Judaims, Passover freed the Jews physically from bondage, but the giving of the Torah on Shavu’ot redeemed them spiritually from their bondage to idolatry and immorality. Shavu’ot is also known as Pentecost, because it falls on the 50th day; however, Shavu’ot has no particular similarity to the Christian holiday of Pentecost, which occurs 50 days after their Spring holiday.

Shavu’ot is not tied to a particular calendar date, but to a counting from Passover. Because the length of the months used to be variable, determined by observation (see Jewish Calendar), and there are two new moons between Passover and Shavu’ot, Shavu’ot could occur on the 5th or 6th of Sivan. However, now that we have a mathematically determined calendar, and the months between Passover and Shavu’ot do not change length on the mathematical calendar, Shavu’ot is always on the 6th of Sivan (the 6th and 7th outside of Israel. See Extra Day of Holidays.)

Work is not permitted during Shavu’ot. It is customary to stay up the entire first night of Shavu’ot and study Torah, then pray as early as possible in the morning.

Sheeba, Queen: A queen who came to test Solomon’s wisdom (1 Kgs. 10:1-13; 2 Chr. 9:1-12).

Shekel: An ancient coin. About .5 ounce (Exo 38:24, Exo 38:25).

Shem: The eldest son of Noah who stands as the ancestor of the Semites generally and of the Hebrews specifically (Gen. 5:32; 9:18-27; 10:21-31; Lk. 3:36).

Shema (shemah): Listen, hear (obey/do)

Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah: A Jewish holiday; Tiseihri 22, the day after the seventh day of Sukkot, is the holiday Shemini Atzeret. In Israel, Shemini Atzeret is also the holiday of Simchat Torah. Outside of Israel, where extra days of holidays are held, only the second day of Shemini Atzeret is Simchat Torah: Shemini Atzeret is Tishri 22 and 23, while Simchat Torah is Tishri 23.

These two holidays are commonly thought of as part of Sukkot, but that is technically incorrect; Shemini Atzeret is a holiday in its own right and does not involve some of the special observances of Sukkot. We do not take up the lulav and etrog on these days, and our dwelling in the sukkah is more limited, and performed without reciting a blessing.

Shemini Atzeret literally means “the assembly of the eighth (day).” Rabbinic literature explains the holiday this way: our Creator is like a host, who invites us as visitors for a limited time, but when the time comes for us to leave, He has enjoyed himself so much that He asks us to stay another day. Another related explanation: Sukkot is a holiday intended for all of mankind, but when Sukkot is over, the Creator invites the Jewish people to stay for an extra day, for a more intimate celebration.

Simchat Torah means “Rejoicing in the Torah.” This holiday marks the completion of the annual cycle of weekly Torah readings. Each week in synagogue we publicly read a few chapters from the Torah, starting with Genesis Ch. 1 and working our way around to Deuteronomy 34. On Simchat Torah, we read the last Torah portion, then proceed immediately to the first chapter of Genesis, reminding us that the Torah is a circle, and never ends.

Sheol: Hebrew word of uncertain etymology, synonym of “bor” (pit), “abaddon” and “shahat” (pit or destruction), and perhaps also of “tehom” (abyss); Refers to the realm of the dead The Greek translation of sheol is “hades”.

Shepherd: A man who guards sheep and leads them to pasture. Abel was the first shepherd (Gen. 4:2). One of the best-known Psalms describes God as a shepherd (Ps. 23; Jn. 10:7-18; Lk. 2:8; Jn. 10:16; Heb. 13:20).

Sherd: Shard, fragment (Isa 30:14; Eze 23:34).

Shield: A broad piece of metal, wood or leather carried on the left arm in battle to protect a man’s body from arrows and spears. The New Testament mentions a shield of faith (Eph. 6:16).

Shiloh: A city of Ephraim, 10 miles North East of Bethel; Site of the ark of the testimony and the tabernacle from the time of Joshua to Samuel.

Shittim: Acacia tree (Exo 25:5; Isa 41:19).

Shivers: Chips, splinters, or slivers (Rev 2:27).

Shod: Wearing shoes or furnished with shoes (2 Ch 28:15; Eze 16:10; Eph 6:15).

Shroud: Cover, shelter (Eze 31:3).

Sign: An unusual event believed to point to the future; an omen. The rainbow after the flood was a sign of God’s covenant with his people (Gen. 9:13). An angel spoke of “a babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger” as a “sign” (Luke 2:12). Jesus’ miracles were called “signs” (Mat. 12:38-39).

Signet: See seal.

Silas or Silvanus: One of the earliest of the apostolic missionaries, associated with both Paul (Acts 16:19; 1 Thes. 1:1; 2:1, 2) and Peter (1 Pet. 5:12).

Silly: Simple, foolish (Hos 7:11; 2 Ti 3:6).

Silverlings: A piece of money made of silver (Isa 7:23).

Simeon: The name of six persons in the Bible, including: 1) The second son of Jacob, by Leah (Gen. 29:33); Ancestor of the tribe of Simeon. 2) A devout man who blessed the infant Jesus when His parents presented Him in the temple (Lk. 2:25-35).

Similitude: Likeness, image, or resemblance (Num 12:8).

Simon: The name of nine persons in the New Testament, including: 1) Simon Peter – See Peter (Mt. 16:17, 18; Jn. 1:42). 2) Simon the Zealot – Also one of the 12 apostles (Lk. 6:15). 3) Simon the Pharisee, in whose home Jesus was anointed by the sinful woman (Lk. 7:36-50). 4) Simon the Leper, in whose home Jesus was anointed by Mary (Mk. 14:3-9; Jn. 12:1-8). 5) Simon of Cyrene, who was forced to carry Jesus’s cross (Mt. 27:32; Mk. 15:21; Lk. 23:26). 6) Simon the sorcerer, who offered money to Peter and John for the power of the Holy Spirit (Acts 8:9-24).

Simple: Ignorant, without guile, innocent (Pro 9:4; Rom 16:19).

Sin or Sinner: Anything a person does that is contrary to the will of God. Some sins are done intentionally or without thinking or awareness (Lev. 4:2), while others are done voluntary or purposely (Lev. 6:1-7; James 4:17; Deut. 24:16;Isa. 59:12; Mt. 9:6; Mk. 2:7; Lk. 5:21; Jn. 1:29; 8:7; Gal. 1:4; 1 Kgs. 8:46; Ezek. 18:4; Jn. 5:14; 1 Jn. 3:9; Ps. 1:1;Mt. 9:11; Mk. 2:16; Lk. 5:30; Mt. 9:13; Mk. 2:17; Lk. 5:7; 18:13; Isa. 1:4; Rom. 8:3).

Sinai, Mount: See Mount Sinai.

Sith: Since (Eze 35:6).

Sixscore: 120 (6 times 20) (1 Ki 9:14; Jon 4:11).

Sleight: An artful trick; cunning, or skill (Eph 4:14).

Slime: Mud, bitumen (Gen 11:3, Gen 14:10; Exo 2:3).

Sling: A device for throwing stones. David killed Goliath with a stone shot from a sling (1 Sam. 17:49-50).

Sluices: A dam for water; barrier (Isa 19:10).

Snuffed: To inhale, draw up, smell (Jer 14:6; Mal 1:13).

Sod: Cook, boil (Gen 25:29; 2 Ch 35:13).

Sodom: One of the two cities destroyed by the Lord because of their wickedness (Gen. 19:24-28).

Sodering: Soldering (Isa 41:7).

Sojourn or Sojourner: Dwell for a period (Gen 12:10). A person of another race living among the Hebrews; a foreigner, stranger or Gentile (1 Chr. 29:15).

Solace: To comfort, sooth, console (Pro 7:18).

Solomon: Son of David and Bathsheba ; Third king of Israel; Under his reign, the kingdom reached its zenith; Noted for his wisdom (1 Kgs. 3:16-28) and his gift of expressing himself. The Old Testament books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Solomon, and Psalms 72 and 127 are attributed to him. He built the temple (1 Kgs. 6 – 7; 2 Chr. 3); Was visited by the queen of Sheba (1 Kgs. 10:1-13; 2 Chr. 9:1-12).

Son of God: The Second Being of the Trinity; Christ (Mt. 3:17; 17:5; Mk. 1:11; Lk. 9:35; Mt. 16:16; Jn. 6:69; Jn. 1:34; Jn. 3:16).

Son of Man: Any human being (Ps. 8:4); The prophet Ezekiel (used throughout the Old Testament book of Ezekiel); In the Gospels, Jesus uses “Son of Man” as a self-designation, particularly in the passages relating to the Parousia.

Soothsayer: One who claims to foretell future events (Jos 13:22; Isa 2:6; Dan 2:27).

Sop: Bread dipped in liquid before being eaten (Joh 13:26, Joh 13:30).

Sottish: To be foolish or stupid (Jer 4:22).

Soul: The real beingliving within the body, or a person’s entire spiritual being (Gen 2:7; Deut. 30:2; Isa. 55:3;Ezek. 18:4; Mt. 10:28; Mk. 8:36; Rom. 13:1). See also spirit.

Sow or Sowing: Planting or scattering seeds. In the parable of the sower seed falls on four different kinds of ground (Mark 4:3-20).

Span: A measure of length (Ex. 28:16). It was the distance between the end of the thumb and the end of the little finger when extended, or about nine inches. Two spans equal one cubit.

Speaking In Tongues: Speaking in tongues is a gift of the Holy Spirit when a person speaks in a language that is unknown to him (Mk. 16:17; Acts 10:46; 19:6; 1 Cor. 12, 13 and 14; Isa. 28:11).

Spices: Fragrant-smelling or sharp-tasting vegetable products such as pepper, cloves or nard. Spices were used in food, cosmetics and incense, as well as in the preparation of bodies for burial (Mark 16:1).

Spin: To draw out fibers of wool or flax and twist them into a thread (Mat. 6:28).

Spirit: The eternal “breath” of life; the opposite of the “flesh” (Rom. 7; Ps. 31:5; Prov. 16:18; Mt. 26:41; Mk. 14:38;Heb. 12:23). “Ruakh” (roo’-akh) in Hebrew (spirit/breath/life) ??????. “Pneuma” in Greek (spirit/breath/life).

Spirit of the Lord or Spirit of God: See Holy Ghost.

Spring: Dawn (Jdg 19:25; 1 Sa 9:26).

Staff: A long wooden pole on which a shepherd leans to rest (Ps. 23:4).

Stanched: To stop (Luk 8:44).

Stay: Support; hold up (Psa 18:18; Isa 3:1; Lev 13:5).

Stead: Place (Gen 30:2; 2 Co 5:20).

Steadfast or Stedfast: Unchanging, firmly fixed (Ps. 78:8).

Stephen: The first Christian martyr; One of the seven men chosen by the apostles for the special “service of tables”; His death was the signal for a general persecution of the Christians (Acts 6:1 – 8:3).

Steward: The manager of a large household or estate. Two parables told by Jesus are about stewards (Luke 12:42-48; 16:1-8; 1 Cor. 4:1; 1 Pet. 4:10).

Stomacher: An embroidered garment; corset (Isa 3:24).

Straightway: Immediately or right away (1 Sa 9:13; Jam 1:24).

Strait: To be narrow, tight, or close (1 Sa 13:6; Phi 1:23).

Strakes: A streak or a stripe (Gen 30:37; Lev 14:37).

Strawed: Strewed, scattered (Exo 32:20; Mat 21:8).

Stripling: A youth or young person (1 Sa 17:56).

Suborned: To procure secretly, bribe, or obtain by corrupt or counterfeit means (Act 6:11).

Subtil: Cunning (Gen 3:1; Mat 26:4).; insight, perception (Pro 1:4).

Succour: To help, aid, assist (2 Sa 8:5, 2 Sa 18:3; Heb 2:18).

Suffer: To allow, permit, tolerate (Exo 12:23; Rev 11:9).

Sukkot (sue-coat): A Jewish holiday; The Festival of Sukkot begins on Tishri 15, the fifth day after Yom Kippur. It is quite a drastic transition, from one of the most solemn holidays in our year to one of the most joyous. Sukkot is so unreservedly joyful that it is commonly referred to in Jewish prayer and literature as Z’man Simchateinu Z’mn Simchateinu (in Hebrew), the Season of our Rejoicing.

Sukkot is the last of the Shalosh R’galim (three pilgrimage festivals). Like Passover and Shavu’ot, Sukkot has a dual significance: historical and agricultural. Historically, Sukkot commemorates the forty-year period during which the children of Israel were wandering in the desert, living in temporary shelters. Agriculturally, Sukkot is a harvest festival and is sometimes referred to as Chag Ha-Asif Chag Ha-Asif (in Hebrew), the Festival of Ingathering.

The word “Sukkot” means “booths,” and refers to the temporary dwellings that we are commanded to live in during this holiday in memory of the period of wandering. The Hebrew pronunciation of Sukkot is “Sue COAT,” but is often pronounced as in Yiddish, to rhyme with “BOOK us.” The name of the holiday is frequently translated “Feast of Tabernacles,” which, like many translations of Jewish terms, isn’t very useful. This translation is particularly misleading, because the word “tabernacle” in the Bible refers to the portable Sanctuary in the desert, a precursor to the Temple, called in Hebrew “mishkan.” The Hebrew word “sukkah” (plural: “sukkot”) refers to the temporary booths that people lived in, not to the Tabernacle.

Sukkot lasts for seven days. The two days following the festival, Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah, are separate holidays but are related to Sukkot and are commonly thought of as part of Sukkot.

The festival of Sukkot is instituted in Leviticus 23:33 et seq. In Judaism, no work is permitted on the first and second days of the holiday. Work is permitted on the remaining days. These intermediate days on which work is permitted are referred to as Chol Ha-Mo’ed, as are the intermediate days of Passover.

Sunder: To separate, divide, or sever (Psa 46:9; Isa 27:9; Luk 12:46).

Sundry: Separate, various, or diverse (Heb 1:1).

Sup: To have taken food to eat (Hab 1:9; Luk 17:8; Rev 3:20).

Superfluity: To be excessive, overflowing, or unnecessary (Jam 1:21; Lev 21:18; 2 Co 9:1).

Supper, Last: See Last Supper.

Supple: To soften, easily bent (Eze 16:4).

Suppliants: Petition, pray, or beseech (Zep 3:10).

Surfeiting: Gluttony, overindulgence, or excess (Luk 21:34).

Surmisings: Allegations, suspicions, or suppositions (1 Ti 6:4).

Swaddling or Swaddling Cloths: Pieces of material in which newborn babies were wrapped. The chief piece was a square cloth on which the infant was placed diagonally. The corners were folded over his sides and up over his feet, making a bundle that was tied with swaddling bands (Luke 2:7, 12).

Swine: Pigs or hogs. The Hebrews did not eat these animals, which were believed to be ceremonially “unclean.” The prodigal son reached his lowest state when he tended swine (Luke 15:15-16).

Sycamore or Sycomore: A shade tree yielding a fig-like fruit. Amos was a dresser of sycamore trees and made cuts in the figs in order to ripen them (Amos 7:14). Biblical sycamores growing on the coastal plains of Palestine (1 Ki. 10:27) are different from the American sycamore or plan tree.

Synagogue (SIN-uh-gahg): From a Greek root meaning “assembly.” The most widely accepted term for a Jewish house of worship. The Jewish equivalent of a church, mosque or temple; An assembly or congregation of Jews organized for worship and instruction; also the building used by this assembly (Mark 1:21). After the exile there were many synagogues for worship and instruction, but sacrifices could only be offered in the temple in Jerusalem (Acts 13:5).


Tabering: The beating or striking of anything (Nah 2:7).Tabernacle: Tent, dwelling. Tile tent used as a place of worship by the Hebrews during their years in the wilderness (Exo 26; 39:32; Mat 17:4).Tabernacle, Feast Of: One of the three great joyous festivals of the Jewish year; Held in autumn at the end of the harvest; Celebrates a renewal of the covenant and recalls the wilderness pilgrimage (Ex. 23:16; Lev. 23:34-36; Deut. 16:13-15). Also called “Feast of Booths” (Lev. 23:42); “The Feast of Ingathering” (Ex. 23:16; 34:22).

Table: Writing tablet (Luk 1:63; 2 Co 3:3).

Tables of the Law: Stone tablets on which the Ten Commandments were engraved (Ex. 24:12). See also ark of the covenant.

Tablets: Ornaments, necklace, jewelry (Exo 35:22; Num 31:50; Isa 3:20).

Taches: Fasteners; hooks (Exo 26:6, Exo 39:33).

Tale: A number or quantity (Exo 5:8, Exo 5:18; 1 Sa 18:27; 1 Ch 9:28).

Talent: An ancient unit of money; In the Old Testamen: 3,000 shekels, 94 Lbs (Exo. 38:24); In the New Testament: 60 pounds (Luk 19:13; Mat. 25:14-30).

Tallit: The tallit (tall-eet) or tallis (tall-us) is a large rectangular shawl made of wool, cotton or synthetic fibers. In each of the four corners of the shawl are strings tied in a particular pattern, called tzitzit. The origin of the tzitzit is biblical; the practice is prescribed in Numbers 15. The precept is to put these strings on the four corners of one’s garment — in ancient tradition, with a single strand of blue as well–as a reminder of the duties and obligations of a Jew. Since we no longer wear four-cornered garments, the tallit is worn specifically to fulfill the biblical precept.

Traditionally, men wear a tallit during morning services; in non-Orthodox synagogues, many women also wear a tallit. In some Orthodox congregations, only married men wear a tallit. One may see people gathering the tzitzit in their left hand and kissing them when the paragraph from the Torah referring to them is recited.

Talmud: The word “Talmud” is a Hebrew word meaning “learning, instruction.” The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism and consists primarily of discussions and commentary on Jewish history, law (especially its practical application to life), customs and culture. The Talmud consists of what are known as the Gemara and the Mishnah.

In addition to the inspired written Hebrew scriptures, which Christians call the Old Testament, Judaism has an “Oral Torah” which is a tradition explaining what these scriptures mean and how to interpret them and apply the laws. Orthodox Jews believe God taught this Oral Torah to Moses, and to others, down to the present day. This tradition was maintained only in oral form until about the 2nd century A.D., when the oral law was compiled and written down in a document called the Mishnah. Over the next few centuries, additional commentaries elaborating on the Mishnah were written down in Jerusalem and Babylon. These additional commentaries are known as the Gemara. The Gemara and the Mishnah together are known as the Talmud. This was completed in the 5th century A.D.

Tanakh: Though the terms “Bible” and “Old Testament” are commonly used by non-Jews to describe Judaism’s scriptures, the appropriate term is Tanakh (or “Tanach,”). The “Hebrew Bible”, also known as Mikra (“what is read”) or TaNaKh, is an acronym referring to the traditional Jewish division of the Bible into Torah (Teaching), Nevi’im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings).

The “T” is for the “Torah”. The Torah is the first 5 books of the Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, & Deuteronomy). The “N” is “Nevi’im”. The Nevi’im is the prophet books (Joshua, Samuel, Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, etc). The “K” is for “Ketuvim” . The Ketuvim is the writings (Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Ruth, Chronicles, etc).

Tanner: A person who converts animal skins into leather. Peter stayed in the house of a tanner in Jopa (Acts 9:43).

Tares: Any kind of weed (Mat 13:25).

Targets: A small shield or buckler (1 Sa 17:6; 1 Ki 10:16; 2 Ch 9:15).

Teats: The nipple on the breast (Isa 32:12; Eze 23:3, Eze 23:21).

Teil: The linden or lime tree (Isa 6:13).

Tell: To count, reckon, or name numerically (Gen 15:5; Psa 22:17, Psa 48:12).

Temple: The place of Jewish worship and sacrifice in Jerusalem. Three temples were built in succession on the same site. The first was Solomon’s Temple, erected about 950 B.C. and destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 B.C. The second temple was Zerubbabel’s, built after the exile in 515 B.C. This structure was enlarged by Herod the Great, beginning about 20 B.C. It was still in the process of being built when Jesus cleansed it. The Romans destroyed it in A.D. 70, leaving only one wall of huge limestone blocks called “the Jews’ Wailing Wall.” Today the site is occupied by the Moslem Dome of the Rock. (1 Kings 5 – 8; Ps. 11:4; Mt. 26:61; 27:40; Mk. 15:29; Jn. 2:19)

Tempt or Temptation: Try, test (Gen 22:1; Mat 4:7); An attempt to get someone to do something wrong; A test of character. (Mt. 6:13; Lk. 11:4)

Temptations of Jesus: Math. 4:1-11; Lk. 4:1-13.

Tent Maker: A person who weaves goat’s hair cloth for tents. Tentmaking was Paul’s trade (Acts 18:3).

Teraphim: Idols, images, or gods (Jdg 17:5, Jdg 18:14, Jdg 18:17, Jdg 18:18, Jdg 18:20; Hos 3:4).

Terrestrial: Earthly, worldly; pertaining to land (1 Co 15:40).

Testimony: The divine law, especially the Ten Commandments; Witness (Isa. 8:20; Jn. 21:24; Rev. 1:2).

Tetragrammaton: The four letters YHWH forming the sacred name of the Supreme Deity (God). Whenever the words “Lord” and “God” appear in large and small capital letters in the Old Testament, the original Hebrew text uses YHWH.

Tetrarch: One of four rulers (Mat 14:1; Luk 1:1; Act 13:1).

Thaddaeus: One of the twelve apostles of Jesus (Mk. 3:18), also called Lebbaeus (Mt. 10:3) and probably Judas. See Judas.

Thee: The second person, singular pronoun; you (Gen 3:11; Rev 21:9).

Thence: From that time, date, or place (Gen 2:10; 2Co 2:13).

Thessalonica or Thessalonians: An important city of Macedonia where Paul and his associates founded an early Christian church. The two New Testament epistles to the Thessalonians were among the earliest written by Paul.

Thine: The possessive case of the second person (Gen 13:14; Exo 4:4; Rev 3:18).

Thither: There, toward that place (Gen 29:30; Act 25:4).

Thomas: One of the 12 apostles; His incredulity of Jesus’ resurrection gained him the name “doubting Thomas” (Mt. 10:3; Mk. 3:18; Lk. 6:15; Jn. 11:16; 14:5; 20:24-29; Acts. 1:13).

Thorns: Various plants and bushes with sharp-pointed branches or spikes; also the spikes themselves. Many varieties of thorns grow in the Holy Land, where they choke out crops (Mark 4:7). In Old Testament times thorns were cut down and burned as fuel (Eccl. 7:6). A crown of thorns was placed on Jesus’ head (Mark 15:17).

Thou: Personal pronoun of the second person singular (Gen 2:16; Jam 2:22; Rev 22:9).

Thought: Anxiety; worry (Mat 6:25).

Threshing: Separating grain from its stalk. Sheaves of grain were spread on a threshing floor and beaten with a stick or trampled by oxen dragging a threshing sledge. The stone threshing floor, or threshing place, in Jerusalem that David bought from Araunah became the site of an altar and later of the temple (2 Sam. 24:16-24). See also chaff, winnow.

Thrice: Three times in succession (Exo 34:23; 2 Co 12:8).

Timothy: A trusted companion and assistant of Paul, from the early part of the latter’s second missionary journey. According to tradition the two epistles to Timothy were written near the close of Paul’s life.

Tisha B’Av: A Jewish holiday; Tisha B’Av, the Fast of the Ninth of Av, is a day of mourning to commemorate the many tragedies that have befallen the Jewish people, many of which have occurred on the ninth of Av.

Tisha B’Av means “the ninth (day) of Av.” It occurs in July or August. Tisha B’Av primarily commemorates the destruction of the first and second Temples, both of which were destroyed on the ninth of Av (the first by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E.; the second by the Romans in 70 C.E.).

Although this holiday is primarily meant to commemorate the destruction of the Temple, it is appropriate to consider on this day the many other tragedies of the Jewish people, many of which occurred on this day, most notably the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492 and from England in 1290.

Tishri: The seventh month of the Jewish year, during which many important holidays occur.

Tithe: The tenth part of one’s income paid to support God’s work (Lev. 27:30-32).

Titus: A gentile Christian associate of Paul (2 Cor. 7:5-7); According to Titus 1:4, 5, Paul wrote the letter bearing his name in order to encourage him in his work in the churches of Crete.

Tongues: See Speaking In Tongues.

Torah:  In its most limited sense (and historically), “Torah” refers to the Five Books of Moses (The first five books of the Hebrew Bible): Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.

The word “torah” sometime is used to refer to the entire Jewish bible (the body of scripture known to non-Jews as the Old Testament and to Jews as the Tanakh or Written Torah), or in its broadest sense, to the whole body of Jewish law and teachings.

To Jews, there is no “Old Testament.” The books that Christians call the New Testament are not part of Jewish scripture. The “Old Testament” is known to Jews as Written Torah or the Tanakh.

Written Torah is often referred to as the Tanakh, which is an acrostic of Torah, Nevi’im and Ketuvim.

Below is a list of the books of Written Torah, in the order in which they appear in Jewish translations, with the Hebrew name of the book, a translation of the Hebrew name (where it is not the same as the English name), and English names of the books (where it is not the same as the Hebrew name). The Hebrew names of the first five books are derived from the first few words of the book. The text of each book is more or less the same in Jewish translations as what you see in Christian bibles, although there are some occasional, slight differences in the numbering of verses and there are some significant differences in the translations.

TORAH (The Law):

  • Bereishith (In the beginning…) (Genesis)
  • Shemoth (The names…) (Exodus)
  • Vayiqra (And He called…) (Leviticus)
  • Bamidbar (In the wilderness…) (Numbers)
  • Devarim (The words…) (Deuteronomy)

NEVI’IM (The Prophets):

  • Yehoshua (Joshua)
  • Shoftim (Judges)
  • Shmuel (I &II Samuel)
  • Melakhim (I & II Kings)
  • Yeshayah (Isaiah)
  • Yirmyah (Jeremiah)
  • Yechezqel (Ezekiel)
  • The Twelve (treated as one book):
    • Hoshea (Hosea)
    • Yoel (Joel)
    • Amos
    • Ovadyah (Obadiah)
    • Yonah (Jonah)
    • Mikhah (Micah)
    • Nachum
    • Chavaqquq (Habbakkuk)
    • Tzefanyah (Zephaniah)
    • Chaggai
    • Zekharyah (Zechariah)
    • Malakhi

KETHUVIM / KETUVIM (The Writings):

  • Tehillim (Psalms)
  • Mishlei (Proverbs)
  • Iyov (Job)
  • Shir Ha-Shirim (Song of Songs)
  • Ruth
  • Eikhah (Lamentations)
  • Qoheleth (the author’s name) (Ecclesiastes)
  • Esther
  • Daniel
  • Ezra & Nechemyah (Nehemiah) (treated as one book)
  • Divrei Ha-Yamim (The words of the days) (Chronicles)

Transfiguration: Jesus’ glorious and radiant change in appearance; Witnessed by three disciples (Mt. 17:1-9; Mk. 9:2-10; Lk. 9:28-36; 2 Pet. 1:16-18).

Transgression: A sin; Rebellion against God’s will (Rom. 5:14).

Trespass: An offense against God or man. In the Old Testament an animal sacrifice was made for a trespass offering (Lev. 6:6; Mt. 6:14).

Trinity: The three divine beings (Father, Son, and Holy Ghost) united in the one Supreme Divine Being (Deut. 6:4;Isa. 45:5; John 10:30; 12:44, 45; 14:9, 16-20, 23; Rom. 8:9, 11, 26; Heb. 9:14, 15; Mt. 1:20; 12:32; 28:19; Lk. 1:35; 12:10; Acts 2:33; 1 Cor. 12:4-6; 2 Cor. 13:14).

Thummin: See Urim.

Thy: Second person, singular pronoun (Gen 13:10; Rev 22:9).

Thyine: Wood from the thya tree (Rev 18:12).

Timbrel: A musical instrument like a small drum or tambourine. It was beaten by women and girls while they danced and sang. Examples are Miriam (Ex. 15:20) and Jephthah’s daughter (Judg. 11:34) (Job 21:12; Psa 81:2).

Tire: Apparel, clothing, a head-dress (Eze 24:17).

Tithe: A tenth part of a person’s income set aside for a special use, usually as a gift to God (Num. 18:21-32; Deut. 14:22-29; Luk 11:42).

Tittle: The marks in writing (Mat 5:18; Luk 16:17).

Tow: The fibers of flax (Jdg 16:9; Isa 1:31, Isa 43:17).

Torah: The Torah (/t??r??to?r?/; Hebrew: , “Instruction, Teaching”), or Jewish Written Law, consists of the five books of the Hebrew Bible – known more commonly to non-Jews as the “Old Testament” – that were given by G-d to Moses on Mount Sinai and include within them all of the biblical laws of Judaism. The Torah is also known as the Chumash, Pentateuch (/p?nt??tu?k, ?tju?k/) or Five Books of Moses.

The word “Torah” has multiple meanings including: A scroll made from kosher animal parchment, with the entire text of the Five Books of Moses written on it; the text of the Five Books of Moses, written in any format; and, the term “Torah” can mean the entire corpus of Jewish law. This includes the Written and the Oral Law.

Traffick: To trade, engage in commerce (Gen 42:34; 1 Ki 10:15; Eze 17:4).

Transfigured: Changed, glorified illuminated. Peter, James and John saw Jesus transfigured (Mark 9:2).

Transgress: To break the law (Num. 14:41).

Translate: To transfer, convey, transport (Heb 11:5; Col 1:13; Heb 11:5).

Travail: Work, labour (Gen 38:27; Isa 53:11).

Trespass: Sin, transgress (Gen 50:17; Mat 18:15).

Tribulation: Trouble, suffering, persecution (Rom. 5:3).

Trow: Trust, believe, accept (Luk 17:9).

Trumpet: A musical instrument with a bell-shaped end and a long tube into which the player blows. Two silver trumpets summoned the people to the tabernacle in the wilderness (Num. 10:2-3). Trumpets made of flattened rams’ horns were blown by priests marching around Jericho (Josh. 6:13). Ram’s horn trumpets or shophars are still blown in synagogues on the Day of Atonement.

Truth: A proven sincerity, verity, honesty; Righteousness (Deut. 32:4; Jn. 8:32; Jn. 14:6; Jn. 16:13).

Tselem: Being made in the image of God; Idol or image.

Tumult: Noise and confusion of a crowd of people (1 Sam. 4:14).

Tu B’Shevat: A Jewish holiday; Tu B’Shevat, the 15th day of the Jewish month of Shevat, is a holiday also known as the New Year for Trees. The word “Tu” is not really a word; it is the number 15 in Hebrew, as if you were to call the Fourth of July “Iv July” (IV being 4 in Roman numerals). See Hebrew Alphabet for more information about using letters as numbers and why the number 15 is written this way.

Judaism has several different “new years.” This is not as strange a concept as it sounds at first blush; in America, we have the calendar year (January-December), the school year (September-June), and many businesses have fiscal years. It’s basically the same idea with the various Jewish new years.

Tu B’Shevat is the new year for the purpose of calculating the age of trees for tithing. See Lev. 19:23-25, which states that fruit from trees may not be eaten during the first three years; the fourth year’s fruit is for G-d, and after that, you can eat the fruit. Each tree is considered to have aged one year as of Tu B’Shevat, so if you planted a tree on Shevat 14, it begins its second year the next day, but if you plant a tree two days later, on Shevat 16, it does not reach its second year until the next Tu B’Shevat. Tu B’Shevat is not mentioned in the Torah.

Turtledove: A bird related to doves and pigeons. Turtledoves were often offered as sacrifices to the Lord (Lev. 5:7).

Twain: Two (1 Sa 18:21; Eph 2:15).

Twined: To be twisted, wrapped, or plaited together (Exo 26:1, Exo 39:29).

Tzedekah (ze-dah-kah): Righteousness; justice; charity.


Unawares: Unknowingly, unexpectedly (Gen 31:20; Jud 1:4).Unclean: Ceremonially impure. Under Old Testament law certain foods, such as pork, and certain acts, such as touching something dead, made a person “unclean” (Lev. 10:10).Unction: Anointing; divine or sanctifying grace (1 Jo 2:20).

Untoward: To be corrupt, improper, or perverse in the AV (Act 2:40).

Upbraid: To rebuke, condemn, or scold (Jdg 8:15; Mat 11:20).

Ur: An ancient city of the Euphrates, called “Ur of the Chaldees”; Home of Abraham (Gen. 11:28).

Urim and Thummim: Unknown objects, possibly small carved stones, worn by the high priest “in the breastplate of judgment” (Ex. 28:30). They used to cast sacred lots (something like tossing a coin today) (1 Sam. 14:41; Ezra 2:63).

Usurp: Hold in possession without right (1 Ti 2:12).

Usury: Interest on money (Exo 22:25; Luk 19:23).

Uttermost: Outermost; last (Exo 26:4; Mat 5:26).

Uzziah: The name of three persons in the Old Testament, one of them king of Judah (c. 783-742 B.C.).


Vagabond: Fugitive, wanderer (Gen 4:12; Act 19:13).Vail, Veil: Curtain; divider (Exo 26:31; Mat 27:51).Vale: A valley (Gen 14:3; 2 Ch 1:15; Jer 33:13).

Valour: Importance, boldness, or determination (Jdg 3:29; Neh 11:14).

Vanity: Futility; Emptiness (Eccl. 1:2).

Variableness: Changeable (Jam 1:17).

Variance: Dissension or controversy (Mat 10:35; Gal 5:20).

Vaunt: To brag, boast, gloat (1 Co 13:4).

Vehement: Vigorous, violent, or intense (Son 8:6; Jon 4:8; 2 Co 7:11).

Vein: A mineral deposit (Job 28:1).

Venison: The flesh of a beast of prey (Gen 25:28).

Venture: A happening or event involving chance, risk (1 Ki 22:34; 2 Ch 18:33).

Verily: Truly, really, or indeed (Gen 42:21; 1 Jo 2:5).

Verity: Truth or an established fact (Psa 111:7; 1 Ti 2:7).

Vermilion: A bright red pigment (Jer 22:14; Eze 23:14).

Vestments: Garments, robes (2 Ki 10:22).

Vesture: Clothing or something that covers (Deu 22:12; Psa 22:18; Mat 27:35).

Vex: To trouble, afflict, or agitate (Lev 19:33; Isa 11:13).

Vexation: Trouble, distress, affliction (Deu 28:20; Ecc 4:6).

Victuals: Food, sustenance, or provisions (Exo 12:39, 2 Ch 11:11).

Vile: Wicked (Rom 1:26); lowly (Phi 3:21); filthy (Jam 2:2).

Vineyard: A place where grapevines are planted and grapes are gathered Vineyards are the subject of two famous Bible stories (1 Ki. 21:1-19; Mark 12:1-11).

Viol: An instrument similar to a violin (Isa 5:12; Amo 6:5).

Virtue: Worth, goodness, morality (Mar 5:30; Phi 4:8; 2 Pe 1:3).

Visage: The face, countenance, or appearance of a person (Isa 52:14; Lam 4:8; Dan 3:19).

Vision: Something seen, not with the eyes, but in the mind, as during a dream or trance. Certain people received a message from God in visions (Isa. 6; Isa. 28:7; Daniel 2:19; Jer. 1:13-15; Ezek. 37:1-14; Mt. 17:9; Acts 10:9-20).

Vow: A solemn promise, especially one made to God (Num. 30:2).


Wages: The payment for services (Lk. 3:14; Rom. 6:23).Want: Lacking or deficient (Deu 28:48; Phi 4:11).Wanton: Undisciplined, unruly, extravagant (Isa 3:16; 1 Ti 5:11; Jam 5:5).

Wax: Growing or increasing in size or number (Exo 22:24; Heb 1:11).

Way: The direction; Path; Man’s mode of living (Ps. 1:6; Prov. 22:6; Isa. 40:3; Mt. 3:3; Mk. 1:3; Lk. 3:4; Jn. 1:23;Jn. 14:6).

Wayfaring: A traveler or wanderer (Jdg 19:17; 2 Sa 12:4; Jer 9:2).

Waymarks: Guideposts (Jer 31:21).

Well: A spring with its surrounding pool of water, or a pit dug in the ground to collect water. Wells played a part in the stories of many people, such as Rebekah (Gen. 24:11-21), Moses (Ex. 2:15-20), David (2 Sam. 23:15-17) and Jesus (John 4:5-15).

Wen: A lump, tumor, cyst (Lev 22:22).

Wench: A young girl, a maid, or a young women (2 Sa 17:17).

Whence: From what place (Gen 16:8; Rev 7:13).

Whet: To sharpen (Deu 32:41; Psa 7:12; Ecc 10:10).

Whilst: While (Jdg 6:31; Heb 10:33).

Whit: The least amount (Deu 13:16; 1 Sa 3:18; Joh 7:23).

Wilderness: A barren region whee few people live and scarcely any plants grow except after the rainy season. The people of Israel lived for 40 years in the wilderness (Deut. 8:2). John the Baptist preached in the wilderness of Judea (Mat. 3:1), and Jesus was tempted by Satan in the wilderness for 40 days (Mat. 4:1-2).

Wiles: Tricks, deceits, deception (Num 25:18; Eph 6:11).

Will: Desire; Something wished (Mt. 6:10; Lk. 11:2; Lk. 2:14).

Wimples: Garment to cover the head and neck (Isa 3:22).

Winnow: To separate the kernels of grain from the chaff. When a farmer throws his threshed wheat into the air with a shovel or wooden fork, the wind blows away the light chaff, while the heavier grain falls to the ground (Ruth 3:2).See also threshing.

Wise: Way or manner (Exo 22:23; Rev 21:27).

Wist: Knew (Exo 16:15; Mar 9:6; Luk 2:49).

Wit: To know (Gen 24:21; 2 Co 8:1).

Withal: Therewith or with (Exo 25:29; Phi 1:22).

Witness: A person who has firsthand knowledge of an event or a fact, and then tells about it. The ninth commandment forbids bearing false witness against (or lying about) a neighbor (Ex. 20:16). The apostles were witnesses of Jesus’ ministry (Luke 24:48) and of his resurrection (Acts 2:32); Someone or something that bears testimony to the truthfulness of a statement or to the occurrence of a happening (Gen. 31:44; Mt. 24:14; Rom. 1:9).

Withs: Cords, ropes (Jdg 16:7).

Wont: Accustomed to, used to (Exo 21:29; Act 16:13).

Word: Something that is spoken, such as a saying, command, message, request or promise. “The Word of the Lord” means God’s will or purpose as revealed in laws, prophecies, visions or teachings (Gen. 15:1; Ex. 20:1; Prov. 25:11;Isa. 2:3). Jesus was declared to be the Word (John 1:1, 14).

Word or Word Of God or Word Of The Lord: God’s revealed will; A title of Christ (Jn. 1:1; Rev. 19:13); The Holy Scriptures (Deut. 30:14; Rom. 10:8; Ps. 33:6; Jer. 29:20; Lk. 8:21; Rev. 1:9).

Work or Works: Labor; Effort; Deeds (Gen. 2:2; Ps. 8:3; Jn. 5:17; Rom. 8:28; Gal. 5:6).

Worship: To honor; To show reverence for (Ex. 34:14; Ps. 99:5; Mt. 4:10; Lk. 4:8; Jn. 4:20).

Wot: Know (Exo 32:1; Gen 39:8; Act 3:17; Rom 11:2).

Wrath: Great anger, especially God’s punishment of sin (Prov. 15:1; Mt. 3:7; Lk. 3:7; Rom. 2:5; 1 Thess. 1:10).

Wreathen: Twisting or interweaving (Exo 28:14; 2 Ki 25:17).

Wrest: To pull, force, detach (Exo 23:2; 2 Pe 3:16).

Wroth: Angry, indignant, or incensed (Gen 4:5; Rev 12:17).



Yahweh (See YHWH): God; The covenant God of Israel, YHWH in the original Hebrew. According to Jewish custom, because of reverence the divine name was not to be spoken, so the Hebrew words for Lord and God was substituted. Whenever the words “Lord” and “God” appear in large and small capital letters, the original Hebrew reads YHWH. Ye: You (Gen 3:1; Rev 19:18) Yea: Yes (Gen 3:1; Rev 14:13).

Yakhal – Hebrew word for hope.

Yarmulke (or Kippah) – A kippah (KEEP-ah) or head covering (called a yarmulke in Yiddish), is traditionally worn by males during the service and also by women in more liberal synagogues. Wearing a kippah is not a symbol of religious identification like the tallit, but is rather an act of respect to God and the sacredness of the worship space.

Yehoshua ( or Joshua) – The Hebrew meaning of “Jesus”. It is the long form of “Yeshua”.  Yehoshua is a compound name consisting of two elements. (1) The prefix “Yeho–” is an abbreviation of the Tetragrammaton, God’s Four-Letter Name: Yod-He-Vav-He or YHVH. In the Hebrew Bible “Yeho-” is used at the beginning of certain proper names: Jehoshaphat, Jehoiachin, Jehonathan (the “J” was pronounced as “Y” in Medieval English). The suffix form of the Tetragrammaton is “-yah” (“-iah” in Greek, as in Isaiah, Jeremiah, Zechariah, or Halleluiah). (2) The second element is a form of the Hebrew verb yasha which means to deliver, save, or rescue. Thus, linguistically, the name Yehoshua/Yeshua/Jesus conveys the idea that God (YHVH) delivers (his people), and/or YHWH brings salvation.

English Bibles were translated with the letter “J” rather than “Y”. This came about because in early English the letter “J” was pronounced the way we pronounce “Y” today. All proper names in the Old Testament were translated into English according to their Hebrew pronunciation, but when English pronunciation shifted to what we know today, these transliterations were not altered. Thus, such Hebrew place names as ye-ru-sha-LA-yim, ye-ri-HO, and yar-DEN have become known to us as Jerusalem, Jericho, and Jordan; and Hebrew personal names such as yo-NA, yi-SHAI, and ye-SHU-a have become known to us as Jonah, Jesse, and Jesus.

Yehoshua was name of Yoshua the son of Nun (Joshua 1:1). YESHUA is a shorter form of this name. When translated it means ‘Salvation of Yahveh’ .

After the time of Yeshua the Messiah, this name Yeshua is not given to any Jewish man but earlier it was a common Jewish name. That name appears in the Tanakh (Hebrew Old Testament) in the following verses: 1 Chr 24:11, 2 Chr 31:15, Ezra 2:2, 2:6, 2:36, 2:40, 3:2, 3:8, 3:9, 4:3, 5:2, 8:33, 10:18, Neh 3:19, 7:7, 7:11, 7:43, 8:7, 9:4, 9:5, 10:9, 11:26, 12:7, 12:8, 12:10, 12:24, 12:26. The language in these preceding verses is Hebrew, except in Ezra 5:2 Aramaic but also there the name is written the same way as in the Hebrew texts.

In the Torah and before the time of the Second Temple the name of Yoshua is written in the longer form YEHOSHUA in Tanakh, but after that in a shorter form YESHUA. To Messiah was given this shorter name Yeshua, which is Hebrew.

Jews who do not believe that Yeshua is the Messiah do know exactly what form of his name, they will shun, and they shun the form YESHUA. They call him names YESHU which is composed of the initials of words YEMACH SHEMO VEZICRO ‘be his name and memory cursed’.

The avoiding of weiting and reciting the name, is based on the Torah: “If a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be put to death, and you hang him on a tree; his body shall not remain all night on the tree, but you shall surely bury him the same day; for he who is hanged is accursed of God;  that you don’t defile your land which the LORD your God gives you for an inheritance.” (Deut 21:22,23 ).

Yeshua (See Yehoshua): The Hebrew meaning of “Jesus”. The name “Jesus” is an Anglicized form of the Greek name “Yesous” found in the New Testament, which represented the Hebrew Bible name Yeshua (“Jeshua” in English Bibles; Ezra 2:2; Neh 7:7). Yeshua, in turn, was a shortened form of the name Yehoshua (“Joshua” in English Bibles). God (YHVH) delivers (his people), and/or YHWH brings salvation.

YHWH (See Yahweh): The four-letter Name represented by the Hebrew letters Yod-Hei-Vav-Hei (YHVH). It is often referred to as the Ineffable Name, the Unutterable Name or the Distinctive Name. Linguistically, it is related to the Hebrew root Hei-Yod-Hei (to be), and reflects the fact that God’s existence is eternal. In scripture, this Name is used when discussing God’s relation with human beings, and when emphasizing his qualities of loving kindness and mercy. It is frequently shortened to Yah (Yod-Hei), Yahu or Yeho (Yod-Hei-Vav), especially when used in combination with names or phrases, as in Yehoshua (Joshua, meaning “the Lord is my Salvation”), Eliyahu (Elijah, meaning “my God is the Lord”), and Halleluyah (“praise the Lord”). See Yahweh.

God’s divine name ???? (Hebrew) or YHVH (Modern English equivalent)…  Most Hebrew scholars prefer Yahweh (ancient pronunciation) or Yahveh (modern pronunciation), but it is never translated this way in most bibles. In the King James Version the most common translation is LORD (6510x), but in other places, especially where it appears with the actual title “Lord” (Htr. adonai), it is translated GOD (305x). In four other places it is translated “Jehovah” (Exodus 6:3 KJV; Psalm 83:18 KJV; Isaiah 12:2 KJV; Isaiah 26:4 KJV), and in a further three places it is translated “Jehovah” in compound names (Genesis 22:14 KJV; Exodus 17:15 KJV; Judges 6:24 KJV).

Some people render the four-letter Name as “Jehovah,” but this pronunciation is particularly unlikely. The word “Jehovah” comes from the fact that ancient Jewish texts used to put the vowels of the Name “Adonai” (the usual substitute for YHVH) under the consonants of YHVH to remind people not to pronounce YHVH as written. A sixteenth century German Christian scribe, while transliterating the Bible into Latin for the Pope, wrote the Name out as it appeared in his texts, with the consonants of YHVH and the vowels of Adonai, and came up with the word JeHoVaH (“J” is pronounced “Y” in German), and the name stuck.

Yiddish (YID-ish): The “international language” of Ashkenazic Jews, based primarily on German with words taken from Hebrew and many other languages, and written in the Hebrew Alphabet.

Yokefellow: A person yoked or associated with another (Phi 4:3).

Yom Kippur: A Jewish holiday;

Yom Kippur is probably the most important holiday of the Jewish year. Many Jews who do not observe any other Jewish custom will refrain from work, fast and/or attend synagogue services on this day. Yom Kippur occurs on the 10th day of Tishri. The holiday is instituted at Leviticus 23:26 et seq.

The name “Yom Kippur” means “Day of Atonement,” and that pretty much explains what the holiday is. It is a day set aside to “afflict the soul,” to atone for the sins of the past year. In Judaism, this day is, essentially, your last appeal, your last chance to change the judgment, to demonstrate your repentance and make amends.

Yom Kippur atones only for sins between man and G-d, not for sins against another person. To atone for sins against another person, you must first seek reconciliation with that person, righting the wrongs you committed against them if possible. That must all be done before Yom Kippur.

In Judaism, Yom Kippur is a complete Sabbath; no work can be performed on that day. It is well-known that you are supposed to refrain from eating and drinking (even water) on Yom Kippur. It is a complete, 25-hour fast beginning before sunset on the evening before Yom Kippur and ending after nightfall on the day of Yom Kippur. The Talmud also specifies additional restrictions that are less well-known: washing and bathing, anointing one’s body (with cosmetics, deodorants, etc.), wearing leather shoes (Orthodox Jews routinely wear canvas sneakers under their dress clothes on Yom Kippur), and engaging in sexual relations are all prohibited on Yom Kippur.

Yonder: Over there, that location (Gen 22:5; Num 16:37; Mat 17:20)


Zacchaeus: Chief tax collector of Jericho at the time of one of Jesus’ visits (Lk. 19:2-8).Zacharias: See Zechariah.Zealot: A term used to designate the more radical Jewish rebels against foreign, particularly, Roman, rule; One motivated by the zeal for the Jewish law.

Zebedee: The father of the apostles James and John (Mt. 4:21; Mk. 1:19, 20; Lk. 5:10; Jn. 21:2).

Zebulun: The tenth son of Jacob, the sixth by Leah (Gen. 30:19, 20); Ancestor of the tribe of Zebulun.

Zechariah or Zechar or Zacharias: The name of33 persons in the Bible, including: 1) Son of the priest Jehoiada (2 Chr. 24:20, 21). 2) One of the Old Testament minor prophets; Contemporary of Haggai; Urged the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:1; 6:14; Zech. 1:1, 7; 7:1, 8). 3) The father of John the Baptist (Lk. 1:5-67; 3:2).

Zedekiah: The name of three persons in the Old Testament, including the last king of Judah (c. 597-587 B.C.). Also called Mattaniah.

Zephaniah: The name of four persons in the Old Testament, including a prophet during the time of Josiah; His prophecies appear in the Old Testament book of Zephaniah, the ninth of the 12 minor prophets.

Zion or Mount Zion or Sion: Psalm 87:2–3 says, “The Lord loves the gates of Zion / more than all the other dwellings of Jacob. / Glorious things are said of you, / city of God.” According to this verse, Zion is synonymous with city of God, and it is a place that God loves. Zion is Jerusalem. Mount Zion is the high hill on which David built a citadel. It is on the southeast side of the city.

The word Zion occurs over 150 times in the Bible. It essentially means “fortification” and has the idea of being “raised up” as a “monument.” Zion is described both as the city of David and the city of God. As the Bible progresses, the word Zion expands in scope and takes on an additional, spiritual meaning.

The first mention of Zion in the Bible is 2 Samuel 5:7: “David captured the fortress of Zion—which is the City of David.” Zion was originally an ancient Jebusite fortress in the city of Jerusalem. After David’s conquest of the fortress, Jerusalem became a possession of Israel. The royal palace was built there, and Zion/Jerusalem became the seat of power in Israel’s kingdom..

When Solomon built the temple in Jerusalem, the meaning of Zion expanded further to include the temple area (Psalm 2:6; 48:2, 11–12; 132:13). This is the meaning found in the prophecy of Jeremiah 31:6, “Come, let us go up to Zion, to the LORD our God.” In the Old Testament Zion is used as a name for the city of Jerusalem (Isaiah 40:9), the land of Judah (Jeremiah 31:12), and the nation of Israel as a whole (Zechariah 9:13).

The word Zion is also used in a theological or spiritual sense in Scripture. In the Old Testament Zion refers figuratively to Israel as the people of God (Isaiah 60:14). In the New Testament, Zion refers to God’s spiritual kingdom. We have not come to Mount Sinai, says the apostle, but “to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem” (Hebrews 12:22). Peter, quoting Isaiah 28:16, refers to Christ as the Cornerstone of Zion: “See, I lay a stone in Zion, a chosen and precious cornerstone, and the one who trusts in him will never be put to shame” (1 Peter 2:6).

Mount Zion as a geographical area is currently the center of much dispute. The Bible is clear that, one day, Zion will be the sole possession of the Lord Jesus, and Zion—the nation and the city—will be restored. “Awake, awake, / Clothe yourself in your strength, O Zion; / Clothe yourself in your beautiful garments, / O Jerusalem, the holy city; / For the uncircumcised and the unclean / Will no longer come into you” (Isaiah 52:1). And “the children of your oppressors will come bowing before you; / all who despise you will bow down at your feet / and will call you the City of the LORD, / Zion of the Holy One of Israel” (Isaiah 60:14).


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