Jackson Heights, Queens (History)

(Neighborhoods In Queens)

neighborhoods_queens_jackson_heights_300x300Jackson Heights is a neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the New York City borough of Queens. The neighborhood is part of Queens Community Board 3.The main ZIP code of Jackson Heights is 11372. According to the 2010 United States census, the neighborhood has a population of 108,000.

The Jackson Heights name comes from Jackson Avenue, the former name for Northern Boulevard. The Jackson Avenue name is retained by this major road in a short stretch between Queens Plaza and Queens–Midtown Tunnel in Long Island City.

Jackson Heights is bounded by the Grand Central Parkway to the north, the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway to the west, Roosevelt Avenue to the south, and Junction Boulevard to the east.East Elmhurst, the area immediately to the north, from Northern Boulevard to the Grand Central Parkway, though not part of the original development, is sometimes regarded as a northward extension of the neighborhood.

 

HISTORY

Most of the original neighborhood is a National Register Historic District and a New York State Historic Register District. About half has been designated as a New York City Historic District by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. It comprises large garden apartment buildings (the term was invented for buildings in Jackson Heights)[6] and many groupings of private homes. It was a planned development laid out by Edward A. MacDougall’s Queensboro Corporation beginning about 1916, and following the arrival of the No. 7 elevated line between Manhattan and Flushing. The community was initially planned as a place for middle- to upper-middle income workers from Manhattan to raise their families.The Jackson Heights New York State and National Register Districts range from 93rd Street through 69th Street between Northern Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue. Some property fronting on Northern Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue, as well as some “cut-outs”, are not inside the Register Districts. A former golf course located between 76th and 78th Streets and 34th and 37th Avenues was built upon during the 1940s. The New York City Historic District of Jackson Heights was designated October 19, 1993. It encompasses an area between 76th and 88th Streets and Roosevelt Avenue and Northern Boulevard.Unlike the State and National Districts, the local designation comes with aesthetic protections.

Jackson Heights is believed to be the first garden city community built in the United States, as part of the international garden city movement at the turn of the 20th century. There are many private parks (historically called “gardens” by the residents) within walking distance of each other. They are tucked in the mid-blocks, mostly hidden from view by the buildings surrounding them. Unless given an invitation, entry is restricted to those who own a co-op around its perimeter. The basis for the private ownership of the parks of Jackson Heights is derived from its founding principle as a privately owned neighborhood built largely under the oversight of one person. The historic section of Jackson Heights is the more affluent part of the neighborhood.

The Jackson Heights Historic District is a national historic district that includes 2,203 contributing buildings, 19 contributing sites, and three contributing objects. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.

Primarily during the 1930s, Holmes Airport operated on 220 acres (0.89 km2) adjacent to the community. The area later became the Bulova watch factory site.